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The Rise of Islam; 600-1200. World History AP Mr. Ermer Miami Beach Senior High. Islam. One of three Abrahamic, monotheistic religions Judaism & Christianity worship the same God as Muslims Two Branches: Sunnis : ( Sunna =tradition) majority of Muslims

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The rise of islam 600 1200

The Rise of Islam; 600-1200

World History AP

Mr. Ermer

Miami Beach Senior High


  • One of three Abrahamic, monotheistic religions

    • Judaism & Christianity worship the same God as Muslims

  • Two Branches:

    • Sunnis: (Sunna=tradition) majority of Muslims

    • Shi’ites: (“Party of Ali”) believe caliph descends from Ali

  • Founder: Muhammad (570-632)

  • Five Pillars of Islam

    • Belief: “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet”

    • Prayer: Must perform prescribed prayers five times a day

    • Charity: “giving alms” giving part of one’s wealth to the poor

    • Fasting: Refraining from eating or drinking from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan

    • Pilgrimage: Must visit Mecca once in life

The rise of islam
The Rise of Islam

  • Arabia=isolated, populated by semi-nomadic clans of Semitic speaking polytheistic people

    • Trade routes shift south, Arabs control new routes

    • Christian and Buddhist missionaries visit area

  • 570: Muhammad born in Mecca, center of trade

    • Orphaned by 5, marries rich widow, Khadija

    • Troubled by economic inequalities, meditates

    • Visited by Angel Gabriel who reveals God’s words

      • Muhammad=last prophet in long line (Hebrews & Jesus)

    • Allah’s messages written in the Quran

    • Muhammad’s faith called Islam “submission to the will of Allah”; Muslims=“one who submits”

Building the faith
Building the Faith

  • 622 C.E.: The Hijra

    • Muhammad & ummaleave Mecca for Yathrib

      • Population of Yathrib converts to Islam, renamed Medina

      • Old clan, family, and tribal distinctions replaced by umma

  • Muhammad defeats Mecca’s army, reenters city

    • Rededicated Kaaba as Islam’s holiest site

  • 632: Muhammad dies, Abu Bakrnamed kalifa

    • Dar al-Islam vs. Dar al-harb

      • Jihad: struggle in the way of God, personal & external

      • Caliph: successor of Muhammad, new leaders

        • First four caliphs expand empire with Bedouin fighters

        • Take lands from Byzantine Empire, defeat Sasanids

        • Islam establishes political foundation with generation

The kaaba

The Kaaba

The Kaaba

The umayyad caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate

  • First four caliphs build empire, do not stabilize

    • Last “rightly guided caliph”—Ali—assassinated

  • Umayyad clan of Mecca succeeds him

    • Capital: Damascus, Syria

    • Hereditary dynasty, religious tolerance

      • Non-Arabs not allowed to hold high government office

  • Umayyad Decline

    • Many non-Arabs resent preference of Arabs

    • Umayyad rulers increasingly oppressive

    • Non-Arabs and other Arab clans form coalition

      • Abbasi clan, under leadership of Abu al Abbas, lead revolt

    • Umayyad dynasts flee to Spain, est. Iberian caliphate

The abbasid caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate

  • Abbasid caliphs move capital to Baghdad

    • Located in Arabic-speaking Iraq, but close to non-Arabs

  • Caliph = religious & political leader

    • Ulama: Islamic scholars, sharia law, unity of the umma

      • Sharia covers all aspects of practical and spiritual life

      • Ulama become law makers guided by Quran and Hadith

      • Ulamaretains real religious power

    • Mix of Persian & Byzantine royal norms

    • Decentralized power, powerful provincial governors

    • Turkish and Berber soldiers comprise bulk of army

  • Greek art and philosophy influential, preserved

  • Breakthroughs in sciences, philosophy, and art

Muslim opposition
Muslim Opposition

  • Sunni-Shiite Split

    • Sunni Muslims (Arabic for “traditional”)

      • Majority of Muslim World

      • Accepted rule of Umayyad & Abbasid caliphs

    • Shiite Muslims (from the Arabic Shi’at Ali “Party of Ali)

      • Majority in Iraq & Iran with large groups in N. Africa

      • Believe Ali was the rightful caliph

        • Ali’s descendants called imams

    • Both groups have own versions of Sharia & Hadith

  • Decentralized rule prompts opposition

    • Umayyad caliphs continue to rule in Spain

    • Shiite leader Abu Abdallah takes control of Egypt

      • Shiite Fatimid Caliphate, capital in Cairo

Women islam
Women & Islam

  • Arabs late to adopt patriarchy

    • Men still married into women’s family, moved close

  • Women work, own property, multiple husbands

  • Increased relations with patriarchal Southwest Asians begins to decrease status of women

  • Muhammad’s relations with women changes

    • First wife Khadija was older, independent, equal

    • Muhammad marries more wives after Khadija’s death

      • Insist wives be veiled, favorite wife Aisha married at nine

      • Women limited to one husband

  • Quran re-enforces patriarchy

    • Women given certain rights and protections

      • Dowries, evidence for moral crimes, infanticide

    • Women cannot divorce, take multiple husbands

Greater islamic world
Greater Islamic World

  • Rival Islamic states try to outdo each other in artistic, intellectual, and scientific achievement

  • Umayyad Spain

    • Capital City: Cordoba, Spain

      • Great Mosque of Cordoba built in arabesque style

    • Good relations between Muslims, Jews, and Christians

  • Central Asia

    • Arabic numerals, Algebra, IbnSina and medicine

    • Greek philosophy translated into Arabic

  • Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Trade & Islam expanded to West Africa

    • Swahili Coast

      • Gold, salt, and slaves

La Mezquita of Cordoba