STATION 1 - Gutenberg’s Invention THE PRINTING PRESS • What is moveable type? • individual letters and punctuation symbols to be used and re-used to print the words and sentences on individual pages. • Process of woodblock printing • Carve a mirror image of the page to be printed on a wooden block • Ink the wood block • Press the block onto paper by hand • When/Where • 6th Century in China • Downsides? • Time consuming and inconsistent quality of printing.
Gutenberg’s Invention THE PRINTING PRESS -- CONTINUED How did Gutenberg’s invention improve the printing process? Much faster More consistent More efficient Impact Mass Production of Books -> More Books to Read -> Spread of Literacy and Ideas The First Gutenberg Printing Press Book…. The Bible; finished in 1454/1455
#3 Symmetry (Geometry) Perspective Realism
Raphael School of Athens 1510 Perspective, Vanishing Point, Shading, Classical Scholars
Da Vinci Raphael Michelangelo
Plato:looks to theheavens [or the IDEALrealm]. Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].
The Last SupperLeonardo DaVinci • Emotions • Response
Angels Raphael #8 Geometry Realism Perspective
STATION 3 - LITERATURE Machiavellian (adj) – principles of conduct marked by marked by cunning, duplicity, or bad faith. Syn. Cutthroat According to Machiavelli, what “art” should every prince master? The art of war. Why? It is the sole art that belongs to a prince. It is an art that can enable regular men to rise to the rank of Prince. Is it better to be loved or feared? feared How does he support his opinions on this issue? He claims, in general men are ungrateful, fickle, false, and cowardly. Their obligation to the prince will be preserved by a dread of punishment. What types of people do you think would be interested in reading this book in 1513?
Station 4 - Humanism What is humanism? What were the goals of humanism? The study of human things. Goals – Emphasis on - The individual - relationship between humans - rethink the their world views and Social organization by drawing on the works of Classic Roman and Greek scholars. How did knowledge of the classical Greeks and Romans foster humanism in the Italian Renaissance? - Scholars were able to rethink their world views by drawing on the works of Classic Romans and Greeks. - Stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature, architecture, and culture.
Station 4 – Humanism CONTINUED Who was Petrarch? Some call him the “Father of Humanism” Best known for: The Italian Sonnet - divides the poem's 14 lines into two parts, an octave (first eight lines) and a sestet (last six lines). The Petrarchian Sonnet – a verse that that refers to unattainable love. He wrote these to his love Laura in vernacular (ordinary, everyday) language. Excerpts from this Sonnet IE. (Love)“those sighs on which I fed my heart in my first vagrant youthfulness” IE. (Unattainable) “the clearest knowledge of how the world’s delight is a brief dream”
What is Folly? “The Praise of More” The state or quality of being foolish; lack of understanding or sense. What does he mean by “make some sport with the praise of folly.” Have fun/stir things up by praising the lack of sense, foolishness in society. What do you think the rest of the book is about? The book makes fun of: Corruption of the Church Superstitions Drinking laziness, Self-love
Describe More’s relationship with religion? He was a very religious Catholic. Which Monarch did More develop a close relationship with? Henry VIII How and why does this relationship change? Henry VIII breaks away from the Catholic Church and starts the Church of England (Anglican). More refuses to attend the coronation of the Henry VIII’s wife, Anne Boleyn. How did More gain fame in Renaissance Europe? The Utopian Novel – a tradition that involves the perfect, ideal human society. What do humanist emphasize? Dignity of man and the power of reason while remaining deeply religious. What is the topic/content of More’s Utopia? What type of World does it describe? The topic is the island of Utopia, the ideal society.