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Early Modern English 1500-1800. Introduction of the Printing Press. First printing press in England 1476. Consequences of the printing press. Freezing of English spelling Books in English are more available Strengthening of the London dialect. Middle English Dialects.

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consequences of the printing press
Consequences of the printing press
  • Freezing of English spelling
  • Books in English are more available
  • Strengthening of the London dialect
the increasing importance of the east midland dialect
The increasing importance of the East Midland dialect
  • Geographically central
  • Largest and most densely populated area
  • Spoken in Oxford and Cambridge
  • Spoken in London
borrowings
Borrowings

The printing press made books more easily available for the new middle classes.

Since the new middle classes did not speak Latin or French, they demanded books in English.

Many Latin and Greek books were translated into English.

The Latin and Greek translations introduced many Latin/Greek loan words into English.

latin loan words nouns
Latin loan words: nouns

allusion occurrence

Frequency vacuum

denunciation disability

excursion expectation

emotion

latin loan words verbs
Latin loan words: verbs

adapt alienate assassinate benefit

emancipate eradicate

erupt excavate

exert harass

exist extinguish

latin loan words adjectives
Latin loan words: adjectives

appropriate agile

conspicuous dexterous

expensive external

habitual jocular

insane

latin plural nouns
Latin plural nouns

climax

appendix

exterior

delirium

latin loan words bare stems
Latin loan words: bare stems

consultare > to consult

exoticus > exotic

conspicuus > conspicuous

externus > external

brevitas > brevity

romance doublets
Romance doublets

Middle English Early Modern English

chamber camera

choir chorus

prove probe

frail fragile

gender genus

jealous zealous

spice species

strait strict

strange extraneous

treasure thesaurus

greek loan words
Greek loan words

through Latin direct borrowings

anachronism anonymous

atmosphere catastrophe

system criterion

chaos lexicon

crisis polemic

emphasis tantalize

enthusiasm

pneumonia

scheme

skeleton

french loan words
French loan words

bizarre chocolate

comrade detail

duel entrance

essay explore

mustache probability

progress surpass

ticket volunteer

admire compute

density hospitality

identity ramify

italian loan words
Italian loan words

algebra design

balcony violin

volcano

spanish portugese loan words
Spanish / Portugese loan words

alligator apricot

barricade cocoa

embargo hammock

mango avocado

hurricane mosquito

potato tobacco

chili maize

tomato papaya

word coinages
Word coinages

blatant chirrup

delve belt

glance endear

enshrine gloomy

wary

clippings
Clippings

van (<vanguard)

rear (<arrear)

fortnight (<fourteen-night)

back formations
Back formations

difficult (<difficulty)

unit (<unity)

blends
Blends

dumbfound (< dumb + confound)

apathetic (< apathy + pathetic)

splutter (< splash + sputter)

spelling reforms
Spelling reforms

In the 16th and 17th century, English scholars tried to reform the spelling of English.

f is ghoti
[fIS] <ghoti>

[f] <gh> ‘rough’

[I] <o> ‘women’

[S] <ti> ‘lotion’

pronunciation of english nonce words
Pronunciation of English nonce words

lape

morantishly

permaction

phorin

spelling in old and middle english
Spelling in Old and Middle English

Throughout the Middle Ages, the English spelling was not really standardized.

Many regional differences.

english dictionaries
English dictionaries

1604 Robert Cawdrey

1721 Nathaniel Bailey

1755 Samuel Johnson

slide28

Robert Lowth

A Short Introduction to English Grammar

1762

double negation
Double negation

Two negatives in English destroy one another, or equivalent to an affirmative. (Robert Lowth 1762)

He nevere yet no vileynye ne sayde

In all his lyf unto no maner wight.

He was verry, parfit gentil knight.

(Chaucer: Canterbury Tales)

I didn’t know nothin’ bout gettin’ no checks to (=for) nothin’, no so (=social) security or nothin’.’

(African American English)

dangling prepositions
Dangling prepositions

The Preposition is often separated from the Relative which it governs and joined the verb at the end of the Sentence … as, ‘Horace is an author, whom I am much delighted with.’ … This is an Idiom which our language is strongly inclined to; it prevails in common conversations, and suits very well with the familiar style if writing; but the placing of the Preposition before the Relative is more graceful, as well as more perspicuous; and agrees much better with the solemn and elevated style.

(Robert Lowth 1762)

plural of chicken
Plural of chicken

cicen-u orcicen-s?

Those who say ‘chicken’ in the singular and ‘chickens’ in the plural are completely wrong.

wegen des Wetters

wegen dem Wetter

grammatical innovations in english
Grammatical innovations in English
  • This is strictly speaking not good English.
  • Hopefully, they will come.
  • The man who Peter met is my friend.
  • You and me, we should do this together.
  • Peter dreamed of a large cake.
grammatical innovations in german
Grammatical innovations in German
  • Wegen dem schlechten Wetter sind wir zu Hause geblieben.
  • Ich mach das nicht, weil dazu habe ich einfach keine Lust.
  • Wenn er doch bloß bald kommen würde.
  • Das ist mein Vater sein Auto.
  • Ich mach das nur wegen dir.
english or latin
English or Latin?

But why not all in English, a tung of it self both depe in conceit, and frank in deliverie? I do not think that anie language, be it whatsoever, is better able to utter all arguments, either with more pith, or greater planesse, then our English tung is, if the English utterer be as skillful in the matter, which he is to utter, as the foren utterer is.

[Robert Mulcaster 1582]

english or latin35
English or Latin?

I do write in my naturall English toungue, bycause though I make the learned my judges, which understand Latin, yet I meane good to the unlearne, which understand English, and he that understands Latin very well, can understand English farre better, if he will confesse the trueth, though he thinks he have the habite and can Latin it exceedingly well.

[Robert Mulcaster 1582]

latin loan words
Latin loan words

Some seeke so far for outlandish English, that they forget altogether their mothers tongue. And I dare sweare this, if some of their mothers were aliue, thei were not able to tell what they say: … The vnlearned or foolish phantasticall, that smelles but of learning … wil so Latin their tongues, that the simple can not but wonder at their talke, and thinke surely they speake by some reuelation.

latin loan words37
Latin loan words

I know them that thinke Rhetorique to stande whole vpon darke wordes, and hee that can catche an ynke horne terme by the taile, him they coumpt to be a fine Englishman, and a good Rhetorician.

[Thomas Wilson 17th century]

latin loan words38
Latin loan words

And though for my part I use those words (i.e. Latin loans) as little as any, yet I know no reason why I should not use them, and I finde it a fault in my selfe that I do not use them: for it is in deed the ready way to inrich our tongue, and make it copious, and it is the way which all tongues have taken to enrich them selves…

[George Pettie]

word coinages caucerisms
Word coinages – ‘Caucerisms’

Latin English word coinage

lunatic mooned [Sir John Cheke]

crucified crossed [Sir John Cheke]

parable biword [Sir John Cheke]

prophet foresayer [Sir John Cheke]

muscles fleshstrings [Arthur Golding]

triangle threlike [Robert Recorde]

conclusion endsay [Robert Recorde]

definition saywhat [Robert Recorde]

irony dry mock [Robert Recorde]

word coinages40
Word coinages

blatant chirrup

delve belt

glance endear

wary gloomy

clippings41
Clippings

van (<vanguard)

rear (<arrear)

fortnight (<fourteen-night)

blends42
Blends

dumbfound (<dumb + confound)

apathetic (< apathy + pathetic)

splutter (< splash + sputter)

back formations43
Back formations

difficult (<difficulty)

unit (<unity)

language change progress or decay45
Language Change: Progress or Decay

The standard of speech and pronunciation in England has declined so much … that one is almost ashamed to let foreigners hear it.

[The Guardian]

language change progress or decay46
Language Change: Progress or Decay

Through sheer laziness and sloppiness of mind, we are in danger of losing our past subjunctive.

[Daily Telegraph]

language change progress or decay47
Language Change: Progress or Decay

We seem to be moving … towards a social and linguistic situation in which nobody says or writes anything more than an approximation to what he or she means.

[Kingsley Amis: The laments about language in general]

language change progress or decay48
Language Change: Progress or Decay

We go out of our ways to promulgate incessantly … the very ugliest sounds and worst possible grammars.

[Evening Standard]

language change is decay
Language change is decay

The history of all the Aryan languages [i.e. Indo-European languages] is nothing but a gradual process of decay.

[Max Müller 1868]

language change is progress
Language change is progress

In the evolution of languages the discarding of old flexions goes hand in hand with the development of simpler and more regular expedients that are rather less liable than the old ones to produce misunderstandings.

[Otto Jesperson 1922]

language change is neither progress nor decay
Language change is neither progress nor decay

Progress in the absolute sense is impossible, just as it is in morality or politics. It is simply that different states exist, succeeding each other, each dominated by certain general laws imposed by the equilibrium of the forces with which they are confronted. So it is with language.

[Joseph Vendryès 1923]

slide53

William Shakespear

Julius Caesar 1599

julius caesar act 2
Julius Caesar – Act 2

BRUTUS Lucius, who's that knocks? Re-enter LUCIUS with LIGARIUSLUCIUS He is a sick man that would speak with you. BRUTUS Caius Ligarius, that Metellus spake of.      Boy, stand aside. Caius Ligarius! how? LIGARIUS Vouchsafe good morrow from a feeble tongue.

julius caesar act 255
Julius Caesar – Act 2

BRUTUS O, what a time have you chose out, brave Caius,      To wear a kerchief! Would you were not sick! LIGARIUS I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand      Any exploit worthy the name of honour. BRUTUS Such an exploit have I in hand, Ligarius,      Had you a healthful ear to hear of it.

julius caesar act 256
Julius Caesar – Act 2

LIGARIUS By all the gods that Romans bow before,      I here discard my sickness! Soul of Rome!      Brave son, derived from honourable loins!      Thou, like an exorcist, hast conjured up      My mortified spirit. Now bid me run,      And I will strive with things impossible;      Yea, get the better of them. What's to do?

julius caesar act 257
Julius Caesar – Act 2

BRUTUS A piece of work that will make sick men whole. LIGARIUS But are not some whole that we must make sick? BRUTUS That must we also. What it is, my Caius,      I shall unfold to thee, as we are going      To whom it must be done.

julius caesar act 258
Julius Caesar – Act 2

LIGARIUS Set on your foot,      And with a heart new-fired I follow you,      To do I know not what: but it sufficeth      That Brutus leads me on. BRUTUS Follow me, then. Exeunt

morphosyntactic changes
Morphosyntactic changes

Old English had extensive inflectional morphology and relatively flexible word order.

Middle English had very little inflectional morphology and a rather rigid word order.

inversion in present day english
Inversion in Present Day English

1. Negative inversion

Under no circumstances would I do that.

2. Locative inversion

Behind the barn stood an old oak tree.

the rise of the dummy auxiliary do
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’

Negative sentences

1. I haven’t eaten yet.

2. She isn’t coming.

3. I cannot come.

4. You must not do that.

5. He doesnot speak to me.

the rise of the dummy auxiliary do62
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’

Yes-no Questions

1. Have you eaten lunch?

2. Is she coming?

3. Can I come in?

4. May I speak to her?

5. Does she speak English?

the rise of the dummy auxiliary do63
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’

WH Questions

1. What have you eaten?

2. When is she coming?

3. Where can I sleep?

4. What must she do?

5. What did she say?

the rise of analytical verb forms
The rise of analytical verb forms
  • Future will leave
  • Present Perfect have gone
  • Progressive is sleeping
the rise of svo
The rise of SVO

Though SVO had become the dominant word order in Middle English, it was not yet as rigid as in Modern English.

possessive marker
Possessive marker
  • Peter’(i)s = Peter his
  • John Browne his meadow
  • Ann Harris her lot
possessive clitic
Possessive clitic
  • The queen’s crown
  • The Queen of England’s crown
  • Peter’s car
  • Peter and Mary’s car
relative pronoun
Relative pronoun

a. the book that fell from the table.

b. the book that I read

c. the book that I gave him

d. the book that I talked about

subject relatives
Subject relatives

a. Who’s that knocks?

b. I have a brother is condemn’d to die.

(Shakespeare)

c. There was a farmer had a dog.

d. There was a ball of fire shot up through the

seats in front of me.

e. There’s something keeps upsetting him.

f. There‘s a lot of people don‘t know him.

which and who relatives
‘Which’ and ‘who’ relatives
  • As a relative pronoun ‘which’ emerged in the
  • 14th century
  • ‘Whose’ and ‘whom’ emerged in EME;
  • later ‘who’ was formed by analogy.

Accessibility hierarchy

SUBJ > DO > OBL > GEN

comparative forms of the adjectives
Comparative forms of the adjectives

(1) happy – happier –happiest

(2) difficult – more difficult –most difficult

(1) in the calmest and most stillest night.

(2) against the envy of less happier lands. (Shakespeare)

the rise of the dummy auxiliary do73
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’
  • Say you so?
  • I know not.
  • Causative ‘do’
  • He did them build a castle.
  • ‘He caused them to build a castle.’
the rise of the dummy auxiliary do74
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’

I doubt it not. (Shakespeare)

I do not doubt you. (Shakespeare)

Why look you so upon me? (Shakespeare)

Why do you look on me? (Shakespeare)

the rise of the dummy auxiliary do75
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’
  • *I do not can go.
  • *She does not may leave.
  • *Is Peter may go home?
lexical diffusion
Lexical diffusion

SUBJ VERB not  SUBJ do not VERB

Verb 1 Verb 1

Verb 2 Verb 2

Verb 3 Verb 3

Verb 4 Verb 4

… …

I know not  I do not know

the psychological mechanisms of language change
The psychological mechanisms of language change

Hypothesis:

Grammatical change involves the change of grammatical rules.

3 + 4 = 7

change of rules
Change of rules

1. NEG  SUBJ VERB not

2. NEG  SUBJ do not VERB

what motivated the development of the do pattern
What motivated the development of the ‘do’ pattern?

In negative sentences, ‘do’ reinforced the negative meaning of the sentence.

the development of do in questions
The development of ‘do’ in questions

What is she doing?

Where can I find this book?

When did Peter see Mary?

why auxiliaries and modals were not involved in the change
Why auxiliaries and modals were not involved in the change
  • If the sentence includes a modal or auxiliary, there is an <WH AUX S V O> pattern even without ‘do’.
  • Modals and auxiliaries are the most frequent verbs. Frequently used linguistic structures are so deeply entrenched in mental grammar that they do not change easily.
silent consonant
‘Silent consonant’

1. Compensentory lengthening

[sICt] > [sit] ‘sight’

2. half, palm, folk, talk

silent consonant85
‘Silent consonant’

3. castle, hasten, wrestle, handsome

4. know, knife, knee, knight, gnaw

silent consonant86
‘Silent consonant’

5. wrong, wrinkle, wrist

6. British American

[ka] [kar] ‘car’

[bi@] [bi@r] ‘beer’

spelling pronunciations
Spelling pronunciations

1. anthem, throne, author, orthography

2. habit, hectic, history, horror, human

re spelling based on latin source
Re-spelling based on Latin source

French loans:

faut, assaut, facon, vaut

Respelled:

fault, assault, falcon, vault

morphosyntactic changes90
Morphosyntactic changes

Old English had extensive inflectional morphology and relatively flexible word order.

Middle English had very little inflectional morphology and a rather rigid word order.

the rise of the dummy auxiliary do91
The rise of the dummy auxiliary ‘do’

I doubt it not. (Shakespeare)

I do not doubt you. (Shakespeare)

Why look you so upon me? (Shakespeare)

Why do you look on me? (Shakespeare)

the great english vowel shift
The Great English Vowel Shift

Middle English

1450

1550

1650

the great english vowel shift93
The Great English Vowel Shift

A: Is Tat Ti tSild

B: yE hIr nam@ Is an

A: @ god and hOlI nam@

B: son@ Se wIl be Tre yerIz Ov adZ@

A: wIl Se spEke to me

B: yE Se spEkT wUnd@r lud@

A: Iz D{t D@I tS@Ild

B: yE h@r n{m Iz {n

A: @ gud and hOlI nam

B: sun Si wIl bi Tri yirz @v {dZ

A: wIl Si spEk tu mi

B: yE Si speks w@nd@r l@Ud

the great english vowel shift94
The Great English Vowel Shift

A: Is Tat Ti tSild

B: yE hIr nam@ Is an

A: @ god and hOlI nam@

B: son@ Se wIl be Tre yerIz Ov adZ@

A: wIl Se spEke to me

B: yE Se spEkT wUnd@r lud@

A: Iz D{t D@I tS@Ild

B: yE h@r n{m Iz {n

A: @ gud and hOlI nam

B: sun Si wIl bi Tri yirz @v {dZ

A: wIl Si spEk tu mi

B: yE Si speks w@nd@r l@Ud

the great english vowel shift95
The Great English Vowel Shift

Sound changes

[a] > [{]

[i] >[@I]

[o] >[u]

[e] >[i]

[E] >[e]

[u] >[@U]

Dialect differences

advanced (B) conservative (A)

[n{m] [nam]

[speks] [spEk]

the great english vowel shift97
The Great English Vowel Shift

1550-1650

A: Iz D{t D@I tS@Ild

B: ye h@r n{m Iz {n

A: @ gud {nd hOlI n{m

B: sun Si wIl bi Tri yIrz @v {dZ

A: wIl Si spek tu mi

B: ye Si speks w@nd@r l@Ud

the great english vowel shift98
The Great English Vowel Shift

1650-1750

A: Iz D{t D@I tSaIld

B: ye h@r nem Iz {n

A: @ gud {nd holI nem

B: sun Si wIl bi Tri yIrz @v edZ

A: wIl Si spik tu mi

B: ye Si spiks w@nd@rfUlI laUd

the great english vowel shift99
The Great English Vowel Shift

1650-1750

A: Iz D{t D@I tSaIld

B: ye h@r nem Iz {n

A: @ gud {nd holI nem

B: sun Si wIl bi Tri yIrz @v edZ

A: wIl Si spik tu mi

B: ye Si spiks w@nd@rfUlI laUd

the great english vowel shift100
The Great English Vowel Shift

Sound changes

[@I] > [aI]

[{] > [e]

[O] > [o]

[{] > [e]

[@U] > [aU]

the great english vowel shift101
The Great English Vowel Shift
  • i u
  • @I @U
  • e aI aU o
  • E O
  • {
    • a
the great english vowel shift102
The Great English Vowel Shift
  • i u
  • @I @U
  • e aI aU o
  • E O
  • {
    • a
the great english vowel shift103
The Great English Vowel Shift

The Great English Vowel Shift is a Chain Shift.

A chain shift consists of a series of interrelated changes that are motivated by the pressure to restore a symmatrical system of speech sounds.

changes of short vowels
Changes of short vowels
  • In unstressed syllables [@] was lost.
  • ME [a] became [{] in EME.
  • [U] was converted to [ö] unless it was followed by [S][l] [T](e.g. run, mud, cut vs. full, pull, bush, butcher)