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Introduction to Fibers. Repeat Pattern. Heat Transfer Printing. Roller Printing. Printing with Pigments.

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printing with pigments
Printing with Pigments

After applying the printing paste, the fabric is dried and then the pigment is normally fixed with hot air (depending on the type of binder in the formulation, fixation can also be achieved by storage at 20 °C for a few days). The advantage of pigment printing is that the process can be done without subsequent washing (which, in turn, is needed for most of the other printing techniques).

dye printing
Dye Printing
  • The process traditionally starts with the preparation of the paste. Compared to pigment printing, the composition of the pastes is more complex and variable, being determined not by the dye used, but by the printing technique, the substrate, the application and the fixation methods applied.
  • Apart from the dye, printing pastes contain a thickening agent (see also Section 8.7.1) and various other auxiliaries, which can be classified according to their function as follows:
  • · oxidising agents (e.g. m-nitrobenzenesulphonate, sodium chlorate, hydrogen peroxide)
  • · reducing agents (e.g. sodium dithionite, formaldehyde sulphoxylates, thiourea dioxide, tin(II) chloride)
  • · discharging agents for discharge printing (e.g. anthraquinone)
  • · substances with a hydrotropic effect, like urea
  • · dye solubilisers, which are polar organic solvents like glycerine, ethylen glycol, butyl glycol, thiodiglycol, etc.
  • · resists for reactive resist printing (e.g. sulphonated alkanes)
  • · defoamers, (e.g. silicon compounds, organic and inorganic esters, aliphatic esters, etc.).
  • All the necessary ingredients are metered (dosed) and mixed together in a mixing station. Since between 5 and 10 different printing pastes are usually necessary to print a single pattern (in some cases up to 20 different pastes are applied), in order to reduce losses, due to incorrect measurement, the preparation of the pastes is done in automatic stations. In modern plants, with the help of special devices, the exact amount of printing paste required is determined and prepared in continuous mode for each printing position, thus reducing leftovers at the end of the run.
  • It is common practice in many printing houses to filter the printing pastes before application, using for example a filter cloth. This operation is especially important for thickeners to prevent free particles from blocking the openings of the screens.
wallpaper screen printing table http www youtube com watch v zlhhw7zywyy
Wallpaper Screen Printing Table
T-Shirt Screen Printing

A line of gift and home décor products designed exclusively by Savannah College of Art and Design students and alumni artists for Showtime. Daniel Shapiro 2005


A line of gift and home décor products designed exclusively by Savannah College of Art and Design students and alumni artists for Showtime. Joelle Easlick (B.F.A., fibers, 2008)


A line of gift and home décor products designed exclusively by Savannah College of Art and Design students and alumni artists for Showtime. Joelle Easlick (B.F.A., fibers, 2008)


A line of gift and home décor products designed exclusively by Savannah College of Art and Design students and alumni artists for Showtime. Jessica Pope (B.F.A., fibers, 2005)

new terms in sustainability

New Terms in Sustainability

What does it all mean?

eco fashion

The eco-fashion movement started in the mid 70’s as part of the hippie revolution was defined by opting out of mainstream and going for homemade, ethic and handcrafted fabric and clothes. They embraced fabric such as hemp and natural dyeing. The next wave of eco-fashion in the 1990’s related to the dye houses and the standards and cost involved by such designers as Lynn Grose for Esprit and companies as Patagonia and J Crew.

Eco-Chic the Fashion Paradox by Sandy Black



Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

This definition was created in 1987 at the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). It is enshrined in the Swiss federal constitution. It is similar to the "seventh generation" philosophy of the Native American Iroquois Confederacy, mandating that chiefs always consider the effects of their actions on their descendants seven generations in the future. The Dictionary of Substanability Terms


As demand used to outstrip supply, recycling was necessary in order to provide the required quantity of material. The natural Quality and resilience of wool meant that is processing of ‘remanufacturing’, ‘reclaimed’ or ‘salvaged’ wool was very popular. It was also known as ‘shobby’ wool for it low quality when compared to ‘Virgin Wool’. Recycled wool was used in carpeting and industrial felt.

Wool, polyester and cotton textiles and clothing provide excellent source materials for recycling.

Eco-Chic the Fashion Paradox by Sandy Black

gary harvey s recycled couture gowns february 2007 collection
Gary Harvey’s recycled couture gowns February 2007 collection

The collection creates a dramatic display designed to change people’s perception of second-hand clothing and create fashion with a conscience. Gary uses material he finds in places like secondhand clothing stores to avoid waste, he says of good quality second hand clothing, people "wear it one or two times then discard it because it's suddenly deemed aesthetically unimportant and out of date when there's years of life left in the garment." His collection "was a comment about thinking about the real cost of the garment that you buy, about that cost being natural resources, exploitation of labor, the biodegradable nature of garments."


Baseball Puffball Dress, made from 26 nylon baseball jackets. Sports uniforms were originally designed to be hi-tech long lasting uniforms, now they are non-biodegradable and are often discarded at the end of the season.


Denim Dress, made from 41 pairs of Levi 501's. Jeans were originally made to be a long lasting workmen's uniform, since becoming a fashion garment they are discarded long before their use is over.


Upcycling was coined by William McDonaugh and Michael Braugart in their book on ecologically intelligent design, Cradle to Cradle. In the simplest terms, upcycling is the practice of taking something that is disposable and transforming it into something of greater use and value. This process allows for the reduction of waste and virgin material use.

what is green
What is Green?

From home and garden to food and health and tech and transport, there are tons of ways we can make our lives greener. The use of consumer awareness and the consumer involvement of global and environmental issues. These concerns about ethical practices in the supply chain is working to create pressure and change in how large companies such as M&S, Gap and H&M create their clothing lines. Consumers are demanding to know more about how and where and in what conditions their cloths are made, similar to what has happen with organic food.

Eco-Chic the Fashion Paradox by Sandy Black

green clothing substainability
Green Clothing / Substainability

1. The greenest garments are those you already own. No more resources are required to get them to you. No more materials extraction, manufacturing, shipping, retailing, etc. Oh, and no cost to you.

2. Actually, strictly speaking, that’s not true about the cost. To you, or to the environment. For research has shown that the greatest eco-burden from clothes is not in their construction and distribution, but in their use, specifically the laundering thereof. Washing clothing can involve large quantities of water, energy and chemicals of a garments life. Greener threads are those that can be cold washed and line dried. Avoid anything that needs to be dry-cleaned.


3. Assuming your gladrags allow such landering, the next best earth, and wallet friendly aspects of clothing relates to their longevity. At first glance this might appear to suggest you should only buy clothes with reinforced elbows and double knees, and while this is true in many instances, longevity also relates to fashion. Selecting apparel that you’ll still be wearing in 20 years, even if made from traditional cotton is preferable, to an organic bamboo top in which you'll look like a dag just 5 months hence. Choose classic styles and colours that will not age. I have a jacket over 22 years old, that looks as good as the day I was given it.

4. Longevity similarly applies to the types of materials and components used in a garment. Buttons, for example, look dainty compared to snap-fasteners. but are imminently repairable. Anyone with minimal dexterity can sew on a new button, but replacing snaps is way more involved. Sewing up tears, rips or holes will give treasured wardrobe fillers an even longer life. The repaired Levis shown above are 23 years old. And have many more years still to go, assuming I keep my waistline in check!


5. Let’s say you really do need to buy new clothes, for whatever reason. What is the best buy? Not new at all, as it turns out. Haunt opportunity shops, Oxfam or thrift stores to find gorgeous preloved clothing. You won’t be alone. Very little new energy is expended in processing these garments. Reusing someone’s hand-me-downs is not like having to lump your brother or sister’s discards. You can choose from an amazing array of styles. There are even boutique stores selling preloved prestige ‘labels’ in evening and formal wear.

  • Thus far we have looked at the greenest of threads and as good fortune would have it they are also the cheapest too. From here on we do need to delve into the purse a smidge deeper.
  • Eco-Tip: Choosing Green Clothing by Warren McLaren

With food the crop can be certified by a numerous certifications. This means that crops were grown without the use of conventional pesticides, artificial fertilizers or sewage sludge, and that they were processed without food additives (like chemical preservatives). When it comes to animals, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and growth hormones and fed a diet of organic foods. In most countries, organic produce must not be genetically modified.

are you making a ecologically and ethically sound purchase
Are you making a ecologically and / ethically sound purchase?

We need to understand the labeling we are now seeing on our clothing in the same way we examine the labeling of our food. What does natural mean? Eco, green, environmentally friendly, sustainable, organic are terms we are seeing on labels. If there are no standards to and no certification behind the labeling what does it all mean. What is certified organic?

global organic textile standard gots
Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)

The OTCO fiber program certifies to the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), which is dedicated specifically for Fiber & Textile Handling and production. GOTS is a project of the International Working Group, who developed these consensus-based standards over many years of discussion and deliberation. The aim of the standard is to define requirements to ensure organic status of textiles, from harvesting of the raw materials,

ecoflower eu

Indicates reduced environmental impact over the product's life-cycle compared to products which do not meet an equivalent standard. This label was initiated and is endorsed by the EU Commission. European Union Ecolabelling Board is part of the Global Ecolabelling Network (GEN) covers. It covers 19 categories of everyday consumer products, with the exception of foodstuffs. There are, for example, eco-labels for textiles, paints, refrigerators, detergents, PCs, televisions, fertilisers, etc.

(environmentally-friendly clothing. pesticide-free textiles, biodegradable dyes, production processes with a low environmental impact)

textile products bearing the oeko tex 100 certification mark are
Textile products bearing the Oeko-Tex 100 certification mark are:
  • Textiles that do not contain allergenic dye-stuffs and dye stuffs .
  • Textiles that had been tested for pesticides and chlorinated phenoles.
  • Textiles that have been tested for the release of heavy metals under artificial perspiration conditions.
  • Textiles free from formaldehyde or containing trace amounts significantly lower than the required legal limits.
  • Textiles with a skin friendly pH.
  • Textiles free from chloro-organic carriers.
  • Textiles for garments free from biologically active finishes.
  • Certification may be given to a finished product (such as a shirt), or to individual components (such as yarn, or fabric).
organic trade association
Organic Trade Association

Organic Trade Association (OTA) is a membership-based business association that focuses on the organic business community in North America.  OTA's mission is to promote and protect the growth of organic trade to benefit the environment, farmers, the public and the economy since 1985.

why bamboo is considered a green fabric
Why Bamboo is considered a green fabric

Bamboo Organic Bamboo is 100% naturally grown & sustainable. 100% pesticide & fertilizer free. 100% biodegradable. Blocks 91% of UVA & 98% of UVB rays- naturally.

textile recycling for aid and international development traid
Textile Recycling for Aid and International Development (TRAID)

It’s hard to believe it’s 10 years since TRAID launched with a mission to fight global poverty through its clothes reuse and recycling activities in the UK. TRAID began with a small network of clothes recycling banks, five shops and a cunning plan to inject a much needed dose of desirability into second hand retail. TRAID’s attractive branding, quirky shops stocking only the best recycled clothing and the emphasis on every garments eco credentials has helped to change the face of charity shops forever. Today, ethical fashion is firmly on the map and TRAID’s latest retail adventure will see a new flagship store opening in the heart of Camden. As well as diverting waste from landfill, clothes reuse means TRAID raise funds in support of remarkable international development projects to fight global poverty. Benin, Malawi, Delhi, Angola, Brazil, Madagascar and Uganda are just some of the countries where TRAID’s contribution has transformed the lives and livelihoods of people living in some of the poorest regions in the world. In 2009, TRAID is delighted to announce it is committing half a million pounds to support development projects around the world. A fantastic achievement that would not be possible without the support of everyone recycling and shopping with TRAID.


It is also a independent environmental standard for the textile industry. “It’s not about testing finished products. Instead, before production begins, components and processes are selected to ensure they meet the specified criteria.” bluesign works for the whole textile ‘food chain’ from raw materials through yarns, dyes, and additives, through to finished fabrics and zippers, fasteners and other trim.

Established in 2000 with a headquarters in Switzerland, bluesign technologies ag are working with the likes of Patagonia, Mountain Equipment Co-op, vauDe,Nike, Marks and Spencer, Eschler, Formosa Taffeta, Schoeller, Clariant, and Huntsman.

terra plana sustainable footwear
Terra Plana Sustainable Footwear

TERRA PLANA tries hard to use a variety of eco-friendly materials and innovative minimal glue constructions. Shoes that are good for you, shoes made from recycled materials, the minimum shoe. The totally sustainable shoe is still a long way off but with each collection we get that little bit closer.

Suzy Menkes on Estethica at the London Fashion Week

international fair trade association ifat key principles of fair trade
International Fair Trade Association (IFAT)Key Principles Of Fair Trade

1. Creating opportunities for economically disadvantaged producers

  • Fair Trade is a strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Its purpose is to create opportunities for producers who have been economically disadvantaged or marginalized by the conventional trading system.

2. Transparency and accountability

  • Fair Trade involves transparent management and commercial relations to deal fairly and respectfully with trading partners.
  • 3. Capacity building
  • Fair Trade is a means to develop producers’ independence. Fair Trade relationships provide continuity, during which producers and their marketing organizations can improve their management skills and their access to new markets.

4. Payment of a fair price

  • A fair price in the regional or local context is one that has been agreed through dialogue and participation. It covers not only the costs of production but enables production which is socially just and environmentally sound. It provides fair pay to the producers and takes into account the principle of equal pay for equal work by women and men. Fair Traders ensure prompt payment to their partners and, whenever possible, help producers with access to pre-harvest or pre-production financing.
  • 5. Gender Equity
  • Fair Trade means that women’s work is properly valued and rewarded. Women are always paid for their contribution to the production process and are empowered in their organizations.

6. Working conditions

  • Fair Trade means a safe and healthy working environment for producers. The participation of children (if any) does not adversely affect their well-being, security, educational requirements and need for play and conforms to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as the law and norms in the local context.