CHAPTER 5 QUIT Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. Chapter Overview Time Line Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1 SECTION Warring City-States 2 SECTION MAP Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 3 SECTION Alexander—Empire Builder 4 SECTION The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 GRAPH SECTION Visual Summary
CHAPTER 5 Chapter Overview HOME Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. The early Mediterranean cultures set standards in the arts, law, government, and sciences that are spread by Alexander the Great and eventually have a profound influence on the thought and institutions of Western nations.
CHAPTER 5 HOME Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. –300 B.C. Time Line 2000 B.C. Minoan civilization prospers on Crete. About 1200 B.C. Trojan War takes place. 479 B.C. Greece triumphs in Persian Wars. 2000 B.C. 300 B.C. 1500 B.C. Mycenaean culture thrives on Greek mainland. 750 B.C. Greek city-states flourish. 334 B.C. Alexander starts to build his Empire.
1 HOME Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Key Idea The island cultures of Minoa and Crete develop in the Mediterranean, while Greek-speaking peoples, separated by mountainous terrain, establish individual city-states. Overview Assessment
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Overview •Mycenaeans •Trojan War •Dorians •Homer •epics •myths WHY IT MATTERS NOW Physical geography caused separate groups of Greek-speaking peoples to develop isolated societies. The seeds of much of Western cultural heritage were planted during this time period. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment Geographic Feature Effects HOME Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List examples of how geography affected early Greek civilization. Sea United parts of Greece; sea trade was important as Greece had few natural resources. Land Mountains made transportation, communication among cities difficult; small, independent communities developed; poor resources spurred growth of colonies; poor food production limited population growth. Moderate climate allowed for an outdoor lifestyle, open-air discussions. Climate continued . . .
1 HOME Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1 Section Assessment 2. Why did the lack of writing represent a setback to the development of Greek civilization? THINK ABOUT •Minoan and Mycenaean accomplishments •uses of writing •other forms of communication ANSWER •No means to record information •Communication limited to oral means—trade suffered • Limited ability to transmit knowledge and culture to succeeding generations Possible Responses: continued . . .
1 HOME Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 1 Section Assessment 3. Why do you think that early Greek epics and myths are so well known and studied in today’s society? THINK ABOUT •arete •Greek ideals compared to ideals in today’s world •early Greeks’ purpose of storytelling ANSWER America idealizes virtue and the individual, or the hero, just as Greece did; people are still intrigued by the mysteries of nature. Possible Response: End of Section 1
2 HOME Warring City-States MAP Key Idea Rival city-states develop distinct political systems. Athens takes its first steps toward democracy, and Sparta develops into a military state. Overview Assessment
2 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Warring City-States MAP Overview •polis •acropolis •monarchy •aristocracy •oligarchy •phalanx • tyrant •helot •democracy •Persian Wars WHY IT MATTERS NOW Many political systems in today’s world mirror the varied forms of government that evolved in Greece. The growth of city-states in Greece led to the development of several political systems, including democracy. Assessment
2 2 Section Assessment First Battle Third Battle Second Battle Fourth Battle HOME Warring City-States MAP 1.Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major battles of the Persian Wars in Greece. For each battle, include the victor. Battle at Marathon Athenians Salamis Athenians Confrontation at Thermopylae Persians Plataea Plain Spartans continued . . .
2 HOME Warring City-States MAP 2 Section Assessment 2. How was living in Athens different from living in Sparta?THINK ABOUT •roles of citizens •type/form of government •societal values ANSWER • • Athens had built a democracy, Sparta was ruled by kings and was a military state • For men, daily life in Athens was centered around the polis; in Sparta, daily life for men was centered around military training • • Athenians valued beauty, individuality, and freedom of thought; Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline. Possible Responses: End of Section 2
3 HOME Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Key Idea Athens reaches a golden age in the arts, science, economics, and military power. War with Sparta and a plague bring an end to Athenian achievement. Overview Assessment
3 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Overview •direct democracy •classical art •tragedy •comedy •Peloponnesian War •philosophers •Socrates •Plato •Aristotle WHY IT MATTERS NOW Democratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece’s golden age. At its height, Greece set lasting standards in art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are still adhered to today. Assessment
3 3 Section Assessment HOME Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 1. List Pericles’ three goals for Athens. Give at least one example for each. Pericles’ Goals Strengthen Athens’ democracy: Increased number of paid officials, increased citizen participation Glorify Athens: Hired artists, built architectural projects and the Parthenon Hold and strengthen empire: Built navy through Delian League’s funds, protected overseas trade continued . . .
3 HOME Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 3 Section Assessment 2. Socrates believed in absolute standards for truth and justice. Sophists believed that standards of truth and justice are in the eye of the beholder. What is your opinion? THINK ABOUT •differences in values •purpose of law •circumstances ANSWER •Agree with the Sophists: Many cultural differences exist in the world; only one set of rules for justice and truth would not work because people would rebel. • Agree with Socrates: Standards exist for what is right and wrong; governing people in this way is more feasible because everyone knows what is expected. Possible Responses: continued . . .
3 HOME Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age 3 Section Assessment 3. How does the concept of “hubris” from Greek tragedy apply to the Peloponnesian War? THINK ABOUT •Spartans’ and Athenians’ opinion of themselves •why “hubris” is a tragic flaw •why the war started ANSWER “Hubris” means the excessive pride that often leads to the downfall of a hero. Athens under Pericles was excessively proud of its sea power and seriously underestimated Sparta. Possible Response: End of Section 3
4 HOME Alexander— Empire Builder Key Idea Alexander conquers Greece, Persia, and Egypt and extends his empire to the Indus River. He spreads Greek culture throughout the empire. Overview Assessment
4 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Alexander— Empire Builder Overview •Philip II •Macedonia •Demosthenes •Alexander the Great •Darius III WHY IT MATTERS NOW Alexander the Great conquered Persia and Egypt and extended his empire to the Indus River in northwest India. Alexander’s empire extended across three continents that today consist of many nations and diverse cultures. Assessment
4 North West East Alexander’s Rule South HOME Alexander— Empire Builder 4 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe how far north, south, east, and west Alexander ruled. Macedonia Greece India Egypt continued . . .
4 HOME Alexander— Empire Builder 4 Section Assessment 2. If Alexander had lived, do you think he would have been as successful in ruling his empire as he was in building it?THINK ABOUT •skills needed for military leadership •skills needed to govern an empire •Alexander’s demonstrated abilities ANSWER •Yes. His ability to govern points to his intelligence and ability to lead. • No. He had an inflexible attitude, and military skills are not the same as political skills. Possible Responses: End of Section 4
5 HOME The Spread of Hellenistic Culture GRAPH Key Idea Hellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other cultures, flourishes throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia. Its achievements have a lasting influence on Western Europe. Overview Assessment
5 TERMS & NAMES •Hellenistic •Alexandria •Euclid •Archimedes •Colossus of Rhodes MAIN IDEA HOME The Spread of Hellenistic Culture GRAPH Overview WHY IT MATTERS NOW Hellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other influences, flourished throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia. Western civilization today continues to be influenced by diverse cultures. Assessment
5 Category Achievements HOME The Spread of Hellenistic Culture GRAPH 5 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List Hellenistic achievements in each of the four categories shown below. astronomy Disproved the belief that the sun was smaller than Greece, advanced the theory that earth revolves around sun geometry Euclid’s The Elements, calculation of pi philosophy Stoicism, Epicureanism art Realism in sculpture, Colossus of Rhodes continued . . .
5 HOME The Spread of Hellenistic Culture GRAPH 5 Section Assessment 2. Describe how the growth of Alexander’s empire spread Greek culture. THINK ABOUT •public vs. private art •realistic vs. ideal representations •the decline of the polis ANSWER Greek culture and language traveled with Alexander’s armies. Many Greek and Macedonian merchants, artisans, and officials settled in the lands that he conquered and the colonies that he established. Possible Response: continued . . .
5 HOME The Spread of Hellenistic Culture GRAPH 5 Section Assessment 3. The Hellenistic culture brought together Egyptian, Greek, Persian, and Indian influences. How is American culture a combination of different influences? Give examples of those influences.THINK ABOUT •American immigration •geographic regions/influences •your own cultural background ANSWER Possible Response: The United States has attracted peoples from many cultures. Their various religions, foods, languages, customs, and traditions have blended into or added to U.S. culture. End of Section 5