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  1. CHAPTER 8 QUIT African Civilizations 1500 B.C.–A.D. 500 Chapter Overview Time Line Diverse Societies in Africa 1 SECTION The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade 2 SECTION MAP GRAPH Patterns of Change: Migration 3 SECTION Visual Summary

  2. CHAPTER 8 Chapter Overview HOME African Civilizations 1500 B.C.–A.D. 500 Africans create diverse cultures as they adapt to the varied environments of the continent. Cities with advanced cultures and technologies become great trading centers in West and East Africa while the migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples into southern and eastern Africa create new and unique cultures.

  3. CHAPTER 8 HOME African Civilizations 1500 B.C.–A.D. 500 Time Line 1500s B.C.Africans who dwell south of the Sahara live in scattered farming communities or are nomadic herders or hunter-gathers. 250 B.C.Djenné-Djeno established in West Africa. A.D. 303 King Ezana rules Aksum. In time, he converts to Christianity. 1500 B.C. A.D. 500 500 B.C.Nok people make iron tools. A.D. 100s Bantu migrations underway.

  4. 1 HOME Diverse Societies in Africa Key Idea Africa is a land of contrasting geography. Early Africans adapt to these varied environments, developing diverse cultures in West and East Africa unique to the particular area. Overview Assessment

  5. 1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Diverse Societies in Africa Overview •Sahara • savanna • Sahel • desertification • extended family • clan • animism • griot • Djenné-Djeno • Nok WHY IT MATTERS NOW Differences among modern societies are also based on people’s interactions with their environments. African peoples developed diverse societies as they adapted to varied environments. Assessment

  6. 1 1 Section Assessment Development of Agriculture HOME Diverse Societies in Africa 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe the main events that followed the development of agriculture on the African savannas. people build permanent shelters settlements expand new activities/jobs are created governing bodies form continued . . .

  7. 1 HOME Diverse Societies in Africa 1 Section Assessment 2. How does adapting to different environments lead to the development of diverse cultures? THINK ABOUT •natural resources •Nok accomplishments •migrations of different groups of people ANSWER Adapting to each environment requires different survival skills and leads people to develop unique ways of life. These different ways of life determine what people believe, how they expend their energy, and how they behave—in short, their culture. Possible Response: End of Section 1

  8. 2 HOME The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade MAP GRAPH Key Idea The Kingdom of Aksum in East Africa takes control of Red Sea trade routes and becomes an international trading center. Aksum adopts Christianity and creates a cosmopolitan culture but declines as a trading power when Islamic invaders seize control of Africa’s east coast. Overview Assessment

  9. 2 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade MAP GRAPH Overview •Aksum • Adulis • Ezana WHY IT MATTERS NOW Ancient Aksum, which is now Ethiopia, is still a center of Eastern Christianity. The kingdom of Aksum became an international trading power and adopted Christianity. Assessment

  10. 2 2 Section Assessment Aksum’s achievements HOME The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade MAP GRAPH 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the achievements of Aksum. Controlled international trade Developed terrace farming Spread Christianity continued . . .

  11. 2 HOME The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade MAP GRAPH 2 Section Assessment 2. Why did the kingdom of Aksum decline? THINK ABOUT •the rise and spread of Islam •Aksum’s relocation •changes in the environment ANSWER Aksum could not hold off the onslaught of Islam and became isolated religiously and geographically. Depletion of natural resources hastened its decline. Possible Responses: continued . . .

  12. 2 HOME The Kingdom of Aksum and East African Trade MAP GRAPH 2 Section Assessment 3. Do you think that the kingdom of Aksum would have reached the same heights if Ezana had not become king? Explain your answer. ANSWER • No—Ezana’s conversion to Christianity enabled him to unite the kingdom and form close ties with Christian empires. • Yes—Aksum’s location gave it a unique chance to become a major trade center. Any competent leader could have developed its potential. Possible Responses: End of Section 2

  13. 3 PATTERNS OF CHANGE HOME Migration CASE STUDY: Bantu-Speaking Peoples Key Idea Mass movements of people are an important influence on world history. From 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500, migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples into the southern half of Africa create new cultures as they adapt their skills to the lands they occupy and intermix with other people. Overview Assessment

  14. PATTERNS OF CHANGE TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA •Bantu-speaking peoples HOME Migration 3 CASE STUDY: Bantu-Speaking Peoples Overview WHY IT MATTERS NOW Throughout history, people have been driven to uproot themselves and explore their world. Migration continues to shape the modern world. Assessment

  15. 3 PATTERNS OF CHANGE Reasons for migration Example HOME Migration CASE STUDY: Bantu-Speaking Peoples 3 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five reasons why people migrate. Give an example of a migration that occurred for each reason. environmental change prehistoric people population pressure prehistoric people economic pressure European settlers empire building Ottomans religious freedom European settlers continued . . .

  16. 3 PATTERNS OF CHANGE HOME Migration CASE STUDY: Bantu-Speaking Peoples 3 Section Assessment 2. How might the migrating Bantu speakers and the peoples they encountered have reacted to each other?THINK ABOUT •Bantu culture •territorial wars •cultural adaptation ANSWER •They might have been curious about each other, willing to share ideas. •Bantu speakers might have been viewed as aggressors to defend against. Possible Responses: End of Section 3