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The Settlement of New England. Susan Pojer / Pamela K. Montague. Produces Puritanism Martin Luther – Bible alone is source of God’s word John Calvin / Calvinism Dominant theology in ALL colonies Humans weak & wicked due to original sin Predestination on eternal salvation

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The Settlement

of New England

Susan Pojer / Pamela K. Montague

protestant reformation
Produces Puritanism

Martin Luther – Bible alone is source of God’s word

John Calvin / Calvinism

Dominant theology in ALL colonies

Humans weak & wicked due to original sin

Predestination on eternal salvation

Good works CANNOT save the damned, but…

Have to look for signs of conversion- VISIBLE SAINTS

Anglicans didn’t advocate ARMINIANISM– it’s heresy- but suggested good works might get God to change mind

Fear of James I

Married to a Catholic

No advances under him for Protestantism except King James version of Bible

Protestant Reformation




What’s the difference?

Separatistswho thought only

“visible saints” should get church membership

1608 migrated to Holland (Netherlands) but…

Form joint-stock company & migrate to America in 1620

100 people/35 are Pilgrims - on Mayflower; 66 days

Headed to Northern Virginia

Landed north of their destination at Cape Cod Bay and stayed

The Pilgrims


WHY did the Pilgrims draw it up?

Entered into because Pilgrims were outside control of Virginia Co.

Early example that society should be based on rules set by its own members


Majority rule

Select Governor

The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620


William Bradford

Elected 30 times!

  • “Of Plymouth
  • Plantation”
  • 1st 30 years of colony
  • Will merge with MA Bay colony (Puritans) in 1691 – becomes MA
tisquantum a k a squanto
  • Knew English; had traveled to England but tried to return (with John Smith) in 1614
  • Kidnapped by another Englishman attempting to sell him into slavery in Spain; rescued by monks
  • Finally made his way back to England & then America in 1619
  • Helped Pilgrims survive after 1st hard winter (where over half died) by teaching them to cultivate maize
the first thanksgiving
October, 1621

National Holiday by 1942

1629 Charles I dismissed Parliament & allowed persecution of Puritans

Approx. 70,000 Puritans left England during the Great Migration


Most went to West Indies

Small group settles in Salem, MA in 1629

Boston founded, 1630

10,000 in MA by 1640

Puritan Migration

Great Migration, 1620-1650

massachusetts bay colony
Royal charter from MA Bay Company

Approximately 1,000 to MA in 1630 - Boston

Come in family units

Create elected legislature – General Court – how is membership limited?

Limited to male church members who are “visible saints”

What do they see as the purpose of government?

enforcing God’s law

Massachusetts Bay Colony

John Winthrop

Governor of Massachusetts

  • Social experiment to create a utopia.
    • To be a beacon to humanity; believed they have covenant to build a holy society that would be a model for all mankind
  • Puritans later known as the Congregational Church.

“We shall be as a city on a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us. . .”


Puritan “Rebels”

Roger Williams

“Liberty of Conscience”

Anne Hutchinson


Why does he become unpopular with his congregation?

With landowners?

Where does he go?

What is antinomianism?

What ultimately happens to her?

rhode island connecticut new hampshire

Individualistic / Independent

Complete freedom of religion – Catholics & Jews

No oaths, no church attendance, no taxes

Universal manhood suffrage (later, require property)


Founder is Rev. Thomas Hooker

1st written Constitution – Fundamental Orders…

Many Boston Puritans


Settled for fishing, trading

Maine gets absorbed by MA Bay Colony

NH becomes royal colony by 1679

Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire

The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637

The more English that arrive & push inland,

the less peace there is with the Indians.

First war between natives & Europeans in British North America.


A Pequot VillageDestroyed, 1637

By who?


By who?


First “war” between Indians and Europeans in English North America

king phillip s war 1675 1676
King Phillip’s War1675-1676


(King Phillip) forms Indian alliance and launches vicious attacks on the colonies - 52 Puritan towns attacked & 12 entirely destroyed.

His defeat in 1676 is a lasting defeat for New England’s Indians


What happened to him?

new england confederation
Formed by Americans, 1643

MA Bay & Connecticut (“Puritan Club”)

For defense….against


French, Dutch

1st milestone toward colonial unity!

Broken up by Charles II

Took charter away from MA Bay colony

d0minion of new england
Imposed by London

Joined NE + NY & NJ together

Sir Edmund Andros – openly


For control – enforce the Navigation Laws

Smuggling becomes reputable in colonies

Andros taxed w/o consent; no town meetings

Glorious Revolution (William & Mary, 1688) brings end

MA loses charter – royal colony

ALL male property owners now have suffrage, not just church members



Characteristics of New England Settlements

  • Puritan Work Ethic!
  • Diversified economy
  • Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age.
  • Emigrated in family units
  • Many extended families.
  • Average 6 children per family.
  • Average age at marriage:
    • Women – 22 years old
    • Men – 27 years old.

Population Comparisons:New England v. the Chesapeake

Why is life


so high in

New England?


Land Division inSudbury, MA: 1639-1656

  • Tightly knit, town-based communities :
    • Town meetings!
    • Direct Democracy


  • Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household.
  • Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs.
  • Women can’t inherit land – limited to domestic sphere; children to be seen, but not heard & emulate adults.
  • “Blue Laws” enforced.
    • (things not allowed–usually on Sun.)
  • Extremely important – WHY?
  • 1647 MA School Law
    • Towns of over 50 were required to provide public education
  • 1636, Harvard College established
    • Its purpose?
disruptions in n ew england society
Declining religious zeal

Thriving economy

Population dispersing away from town to outlying farms….outside control of church

Led to Halfway Covenant,1662

Partial church membership, but no vote

Children can be baptized

No communion

Salem Witchcraft Trials

1692 - - Causes?

How did they end?

Cotton Mather?

Disruptions in New England Society