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Finishing up:Jefferson’s Foreign Policy • British & French still fighting (remember – they DO NOT GET ALONG! French & Indian War, American Revolution, etc.) • Britain banned American voyages between the French West Indies and France • So, the U.S. and France come up with a plan called Reexport Trade
Jefferson, continued • British needs soldiers – Impressment (stealing/raiding) of U.S. Ships • Americans angry! • Chesapeake/Leopard Affair (1807) • Leopard (British) fires on Chesapeake (American) • Greatly angered Americans
Jefferson, continued • Embargo Act of 1807 • Jefferson still doesn’t want to go to war • Ends trade with GB • It DID NOT WORK! –led to bankruptcy among American merchants and farmers • Tainted Jefferson’s reputation at the end of his presidency
Election of 1808 • Jefferson leaves with America on the brink of war • James Madison (from VA) wins in a landslide • Was Jefferson’s Secretary of State • VP = George Clinton Years of presidency: 1809-1817
Memo to James Madison • Imagine you are James Madison, president of the United States in 1809 • Read the memo • In small groups (3-4), brainstorm at least 3 ideas for handling the situation with Britain and France. Pick which of these 3 ideas you think would be most effective. • Ex. Forming alliances, declaring war, etc.
Madison faces a dilemma • Dilemma of how to deal with British & French attacks on U.S. ships • Realizes he can no longer maintain Washington’s policy of ISOLATIONSIM • Offered a deal to both France & GB: If their country would stop attacking American ships, America would no longer trade with their enemy • British refused • France agreed • So, America stopped all trade with GB • But… U.S. ships continued to get attacked by both sides • So, Madison goes to war in 1812!
British Invasion of Washington • August 1814, British troops marched unopposed into DC. • They set fire to the capitol, White House, and many other government buildings • Humiliated DC for weeks
Baltimore • September 1814, British lay siege to Baltimore • After witnessing the successful defense of the city and Ft. McHenry, Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner
Battle of New OrleansJanuary 8, 1815 • Hero – Andrew Jackson • Occurred after Treaty was signed • Why was this possible? • Helped legitimize LA Purchase
Results of the War of 1812 • America formally and finally gains independence from England • Impressment is ended • Standing Army and Navy • Collapse of the Federalist Party • Rise of Andrew Jackson as a national hero • Era of Good Feelings – stability in American government