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Objectives • Describe the outcome of the election of 1800. • Explain Jefferson’s policies as President. • Discuss the importance of Marbury v. Madison.
Terms and People • Thomas Jefferson – third President of the United States, elected in 1800 • Aaron Burr – Jefferson’s running mate in the 1800 election • laissez faire – the idea that the government should not interfere in the economy • John Marshall – Chief Justice of the Supreme Court under President Jefferson • judicial review – the authority of the Supreme Court to strike down unconstitutional laws
How did Jefferson chart a new course for the government? In 1800, President John Adams ran for reelection against Thomas Jefferson. Federalists supported John Adams. Republicanssupported Thomas Jefferson.
The election of 1800 was viciously contested. Federalists threatened civil war if Jefferson were elected. Republicans accused John Adams of creating a monarchy. By receiving 73 electoral votes, Jefferson defeated Adams.
However, Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, received the same number of votes. Jefferson Thomas Jefferson - 73 Votes Aaron Burr - 73 Votes The House of Representatives had to break the tie.Theyvoted for Jefferson to be President and Burr to be Vice President.
To avoid this situation in the future, Congress passed the Twelfth Amendment. Twelfth Amendment From 1804 on, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President.
Jefferson was the first President to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C., the new capital. Jefferson chose a less aristocratic ceremony. In the past: The President rode to the inauguration in a fancy carriage. People bowed to the President. At Jefferson’s inauguration: Jefferson walked to the ceremony. People did not bow. They shook Jefferson’s hand. In his inaugural address, Jefferson urged all Americans to unite.
Jefferson thought of his election as the “Revolution of 1800.” Jefferson vowed to change many of the policies of George Washington and John Adams. His first goal was to limit the power of the federal government. He believed in the idea of laissez faire, from the French term for “let alone.”
Jefferson created new Republican policies and kept some existing Federalist policies. Republican Federalist
Jefferson also targeted the Sedition Act, which he had long opposed. Many people had been convicted and fined under the act. Others had been imprisoned. Jefferson ordered the fines refunded. Jefferson released the prisoners.
One Federalist who did not keep his job was Judge William Marbury. Adams had appointed Marbury and other judges in his last hours as President. When Jefferson took office, he ordered Secretary of State James Madison to cease work on the appointments.
Jefferson’s decision led to the landmark Supreme Court case, Marbury v. Madison. William Marbury sued James Madison. This act gave the Supreme Court the power to review any case against a federal official. Marbury cited the Judiciary Act of 1789.
In Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court ruled that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional. The ruling stated that the Court’s power came from the Constitution, not Congress. Under the Judiciary Act, the Supreme Court’s power came from Congress. Supreme Court Congress Constitution Therefore, Congress did not have the right to give power to the Supreme Court in the Judiciary Act.
Chief Justice John Marshall used this case to establish the principle of judicial review. This gives the Supreme Court the authority to strike down unconstitutional laws. Unconstitutional laws Judicial review remains one of the most important powers of the Supreme Court.
Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz
What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory? The tide of westward settlement speeded up in the years after America’s independence. By 1800, more than one million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
Most western settlers were farmerswho relied on the Mississippi River. Farmers shipped goods down the Mississippi to the port of New Orleans. From there, goods were loaded on ships and carried to markets across the Atlantic.
Spain, which controlled the Mississippi River and New Orleans, threatened to close the port to American ships. This treaty guaranteed Americans’ right to ship goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans. Pinckney Treaty To prevent this, the U.S. negotiated the Pinckney Treaty with Spain in 1795.
Later, after the treaty had been signed, Spain withdrew Americans’ right to ship goods through New Orleans. Westerners demanded war with Spain.
To make matters worse, Jefferson learned that Spain had secretly given its Louisiana Territory to France. French territory Jefferson feared that France would become dominant in America, as it was becoming in Europe. If this happened, westward expansion of the United States would be blocked.
Jefferson decided to try to buy New Orleans from the French. He sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to Paris to make a deal. When they arrived in France, they discovered that the situation had shifted yet again.
The French had been driven from their colony on Haiti. Without Haiti, France would have trouble defending Louisiana in the event of a war.
Also, war between France and Britain was looming. Britain France Napoleon needed money for the war.
Because of France’s situation, Monroe and Livingston received a surprising offer. France offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the United States. New Orleans Louisiana
Jefferson hesitated to approve the purchase. Was it constitutional? In the end, Jefferson decided that the purchase was constitutional because the President is able to make treaties with foreign countries.
After buying the Louisiana Territory in 1803, Thomas Jefferson was eager to have it explored and mapped.
In 1803, Jefferson convinced Congress to fund a western expedition. He chose two army officers to lead the exploration. Meriwether Lewis William Clark
Look for a waterway from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean. Report back on the natural features of the region. Make contact with Native Americans. Goals of the western expedition
Lewis and Clark left St. Louis in the spring of 1804 and explored the northern part of the Louisiana Territory.
Lewis and Clark’s expedition lasted for over two years. July 1804 August 1804 October 1804 The party reached the mouth of the Platte River, which feeds into the Missouri River. The expedition followed the Missouri River from St. Louis to the Rocky Mountains.
They met with Native Americans for the first time. July 1804 August 1804 October 1804 The Americans promised to give the tribes military support and trading rights in exchange for peace.
They camped in what is now North Dakota for the winter. July 1804 August 1804 October 1804 They were joined by Sacagawea,aShoshone translator.
The party reached the continental divide. August 1805 November 1805 March 1806 They did not find a waterway to the Pacific. Instead, they had to navigate rapids in their canoes.
They reached the Pacific Ocean by way of the Columbia River. They began the return journey, which took about half a year. August 1805 November 1805 March 1806
The journey of Lewis and Clark led many Americans to feel a sense of duty to expand west.
From 1805 to 1807, Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana Territory.
Partway up a mountain, he was forced to turn back. Pike returned home through Spanish New Mexico. Pike headed west to the Rocky Mountains. Pike’s Peak Today, this mountain is known as Pike’s Peak. Rocky Mountains Pike’s reports increased U.S. interest in the region.
Objectives • Discuss how the United States defeated the Barbary pirates. • Explain how war in Europe hurt American trade. • Discuss the causes and effects of the Embargo Act. • Identify the events leading up to the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Terms and People • tribute – money paid by one country to another in return for protection • Stephen Decatur – led a group of American sailors in a battle to protect the warship Philadelphia against pirates • embargo – a government order that forbids foreign trade • smuggle – the act of illegally importing or exporting goods
Terms and People (continued) • Tecumseh – organized western Native American tribes to resist American expansion • William Henry Harrison – governor of the Indiana Territory who sent soldiers to fight Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe
How did Jefferson respond to threats to the security of the nation? Trade with Europe was critical to the American economy. crops and natural resources manufactured goods United States Europe
Pirates from the North African Barbary States began attacking American ships. At first, America paid tribute, as other nations did. America paid money to the rulers of the Barbary States. The Barbary pirates stopped attacking American ships.
Jefferson stopped paying tribute. He sent warships to protect American merchant ships. American sailors led by Stephen Decatur burned the Philadelphia so the pirates could not use it. Pirates from the Barbary State of Tripoli captured the American ship, Philadelphia. This victory and others inspired confidence in America’s ability to deal with foreign threats.
A greater threat to America came from Britain and France. United States France Britain In 1803, Britain and France were at war. The United States remained neutral and profited by trading with both nations.
Britain and France weakened each other by cutting off each other’s foreign trade. France Britain U.S. U.S. France seized American ships trading with Britain. Britain did the same to ships trading with France.
Once again, Britain used impressment to gather soldiers for the war with France. Thousands of Americans were forced to serve in the British navy.
Jefferson used a peaceful method to force Britain and France to respect American neutrality. He imposed an embargo on American ships sailing to any foreign port. foreign trade Jefferson predicted that the embargo would stop Britain and France from attacking American ships.
The embargo hurt America in many ways. Prices of American crops declined. American exports declined. Many Americans lost their jobs. embargo Merchants turned to smuggling to survive.
Congress repealed the Embargo Act in 1809, just before Jefferson left office. Congress passed a new law that reopened trade with all countries except France and Britain. America would reopen trade with those countries when they started respecting America’s neutrality.
Also during this period, tens of thousands of American settlers moved westward. As American settlers moved west, they took over Native American lands.