The harlem renaissance
1 / 24

The Harlem Renaissance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Harlem Renaissance. What was the Harlem Renaissance?. African American cultural movement of the 1920’s and early 30’s Centered in Harlem Consisted of African American literature, art, and music

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The Harlem Renaissance' - kalkin

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

What was the harlem renaissance
What was the Harlem Renaissance?

  • African American cultural movement of the 1920’s and early 30’s

  • Centered in Harlem

  • Consisted of African American literature, art, and music

  • 1st time in American history that black artists could earn their livings and be critically acclaimed in these fields

A the black middle class
A. The Black Middle Class

  • Developed by 1900

  • Increased Education of African Americans

  • Increased Employment Opportunities

B the great migration
B. The Great Migration

  • Movement of African Americans from the South to the North

  • 1900-1930 One Million African Americans moved North

  • 1900-1920 Black population of Harlem Doubled

Why move
Why Move?

  • Depression in the Agricultural South

  • WWI Industrial Boom in the North

  • Growing Oppression and Racism in the South

  • Better Quality of Life

Why harlem
Why Harlem?

  • Available housing

  • New York was the cultural center of America

  • The black population in Harlem was large-200,000 by 1930

  • National headquarters for recently founded protest and political groups-NAACP and the Urban League

C political agenda promoting equal rights
C. Political Agenda Promoting Equal Rights


  • No common style or political ideology

  • Common themes: Africa, American South, Racial Pride, Social & Political Equality

  • Appealed to a mixed audience

Founders of the harlem renaissance
Founders of the Harlem Renaissance

  • Alain Leroy Locke

  • W.E.B. DuBois

Alain leroy locke
Alain Leroy Locke

  • Born in Philadelphia

  • September 13, 1886

  • Ph.D. in philosophy-Harvard

  • Professor Howard University

  • Cultural Pluralism: each culture group has its own identity and it is entitled to protect and promote it

W e b dubois
W.E.B. DuBois

  • William Edward Burghardt DuBois

  • Ph.D Harvard

  • Helped form NAACP

  • Editor of The Crisis

  • Extremely influential in the literary world of the Harlem Renaissance

  • “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line.”


W e b du bois the souls of black folk
W.E.B. Du Bois’ The Souls of Black Folk

“Leaving, then, the world of the white man, I have stepped within the Veil, raising it that you may view faintly its deeper recesses,-the meaning of its religion, the passion of its human sorrow, and the struggle of its greater souls.”

From: “The Forethought”

Of our spiritual strivings w e b dubois
“Of Our Spiritual Strivings” W.E.B.DuBois

“Between me and the other world there is ever an unasked question: unasked by some through feelings of delicacy; by others through the difficulty of rightly framing it. All, nevertheless, flutter round it. They approach me in a half-hesitant sort of way, eye me curiously or compassionately, and then, instead of saying directly, How does it feel to be a problem? They say, I know an excellent colored man in my town; or, I fought at Mechanicsville; or, Do not these Southern outrages make your blood boil? At these I smile, or am interested, or reduce the boiling to a simmer, as the occasion may require. To the real question, How does it feel to be a problem? I answer seldom a word.”

From: The Souls of Black Folk

The naacp

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

  • Founded by 60 people-black & white-on Abraham Lincoln’s birthday, 1909

  • Purpose: improving the conditions under which black Americans lived

The crisis
The Crisis

  • Founded 1910 by Du Bois

  • Published by the NAACP

  • Became the most influential and prestigious black periodical in American history

  • Circulation: 1910-1,750 per issue; 1919-94,908 per issue, some topping 100,000

Claude mckay
Claude McKay

  • September 15, 1890

  • Born in Jamaica

  • Immigrated in 1912

  • Socialist editor of The Liberator

  • 1st two poems published in 1917 under a pseudonym

  • Red Summer of 1919 led to his best known poem “If We Must Die”

  • 1922-Harlem Shadows one of the first works by a black writer to be published by a mainstream, national publisher

Countee cullen
Countee Cullen

  • March 30, 1903

  • Adopted

  • Masters in English and French from Harvard

  • Won more major literary awards than any other black writer in the 1920s

  • “Crossover” artist in that he was known for his ability to write “white” verse-ballads, quatrains, and sonnets

Langston hughes
Langston Hughes

  • Born 1902, Joplin, Missouri

  • June 1921-“The Negro Speaks of Rivers” published in The Crisis

  • Sept. 1921-Moved to New York to attend Columbia University, and participate in Harlem life

  • 1922-1924 traveled abroad

  • By 1926 considered a major force in the Harlem Renaissance

Popular works by hughes


“The Negro Speaks of Rivers”

“Harlem” renamed “Dream Deferred”

“I, Too”

“The Weary Blues”

“Dream Variations”

“Mother to Son”

Books and Essays

The Weary Blues

Fine Clothes to the Jew

The Ways of White Folks

Simple Speaks His Mind

“The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”

Popular Works by Hughes

Zora neale hurston
Zora Neale Hurston

  • January 7, 1891

  • Eatonville, FL-1st incorporated black community in America

  • Novelist, folklorist, anthropologist

  • Columbia University

  • Authority on Black Culture during the Harlem Renaissance

  • A Utopian

  • 1934-Jonah’s Gourd Vine

  • 1937-Their Eyes Were Watching God

  • Died 1960 in poverty and obscurity

Literary events of the harlem renaissance
Literary Events of the Harlem Renaissance

  • March 21, 1924-Charles S. Johnson (National Urban League) held a dinner to recognize black writers and to introduce them to the white literary establishment

  • 1926-White novelist Carl Van Vechten publishes a novel that portrayed life in Harlem, creating a “Negro vogue”

  • 1926-The magazine Fire!! was published by a group of young black writers including Hughes and Hurston

The end of the harlem renaissance
The End of the Harlem Renaissance

  • Ended in the 1930s

  • The Great Depression

  • Organizations such as NAACP & NUL shifted focus to economic and social issues

  • Many writers and promoters left NYC including Du Bois and Hughes

  • Riot in Harlem in 1935

Lasting effects
Lasting Effects

  • Changed the face of African American arts in the United States

  • Opened the door for future writers, as publishers and the public were more open to African American literature

  • Acted as inspiration to future writers, painters, and musicians