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Lab 6: Respiratory System. Announcements. Extra Credit Assignment Extra Credit Quiz. Quick and Painless Review. Where is your thymus? What is the difference between lymph nodules and MALT? What is the difference between your lymph nodes and your spleen?. Respiration Overview.

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announcements
Announcements
  • Extra Credit Assignment
  • Extra Credit Quiz
quick and painless review
Quick and Painless Review
  • Where is your thymus?
  • What is the difference between lymph nodules and MALT?
  • What is the difference between your lymph nodes and your spleen?
respiration overview
Respiration Overview
  • Anatomy of the Respiratory System
  • Mathematics of the Respiratory System
  • How do you evaluate malfunctions in the respiratory system?
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Respiratory System:

Functions?

respiratory system6
Respiratory System
  • Respiratory System:

Functions?

    • Receive air for breathing
    • Exchange gases (O2. CO2) with the blood
    • Expel modified air
upper respiratory tract
Upper Respiratory Tract
  • Nasal Cavity
    • Guard Hairs
    • Mucous
  • Oral Cavity
  • Pharynx
    • Posterior to Nasal and Oral Cavities
    • Cleans Air
    • Intersection of Respiratory and Digestion
upper respiratory tract9
Upper Respiratory Tract
  • Epiglottis-
    • Flap blocks food from entering the lower respiratory tract
  • Larynx
    • 9 plates of Cartilage
    • Large Chamber
    • Contains vocal cords
anatomy of the larynx11
Anatomy of the Larynx
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles in larynx pull the cartilage
  • This causes the cords to move
  • Males have thicker cords
functions of the upper respiratory tract
Functions of the Upper Respiratory Tract
  • Cleans air
    • Guard hairs
    • Mucus (MALT)
    • Cilia
  • Warms air
  • Moistens air
anatomy of the lungs
Anatomy of the Lungs
  • Trachea
    • C-shaped cartilage
    • Mucociliary escalator
  • Primary Bronchi
    • Cartilage
    • Right wider than left
  • Secondary Bronchi
  • Tertiary Bronchi
    • More branches on right
mucociliary escalator
Mucociliary Escalator
  • Muscus-
    • Traps particles
  • Cilia-
    • Move particles up toward pharynx
lower respiratory tract
Lower Respiratory Tract
  • Bronchioles
    • Small – 1mm or less
    • No longer contain cartilage
    • Continue Branching
  • Terminal Bronchioles
    • Last passages before aveoli
    • Still have Cilia
  • Alveoli – where gas exchange occurs
    • Phagocytosis removes small particles
lower respiratory tract16
Lower Respiratory Tract
  • Convey air to alveoli
  • Clean air and remove particles by mucociliary elevator
  • Macrophages in aveoli phagocytize foreign particles – last line of defense
airflow in the lungs
1º Bronchi

2 º Bronchi

3 º Bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles

Alveolus

GAS EXCHANGE with Capillary Bed

Airflow in the Lungs
mechanism of airflow
Mechanism of Airflow
  • Airflow is a result in changes of pressure between two systems
    • System 1: the outer atmosphere
    • System 2: the pressure within the alveoli
  • How does pressure change within the alveoli?
mechanisms of airflow
Mechanisms of Airflow
  • How does pressure change within the alveoli?
    • Boyles Law: P  1/V

(Changes in Volume result in changes in Pressure!!!!!)

  • How does volume change within the alveoli?
mechanism of airflow21
Mechanism of Airflow
  • How does volume change within the alveoli?
  • Inspiration
    • The diaphragm expands the thoracic cavity during quiet inspiration
    • Deep inspiration is aided by the pectoralis minor, the sternocleidomastoid and the erector spinae muscles (external intercostals)
mechanism of airflow22
Mechanism of Airflow
  • Expiration
    • Quiet Breathing: Volume changes are not caused by muscular contraction, rather the elasticity of the lungs and ribs
    • Deep expiration: internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
alveolar gas exhange
Alveolar Gas Exhange
  • O2 loads into RBC; CO2 unloads into the alveoli
  • Factors involved:
    • Concentration gradients
    • Solubility in H2O
    • Membrane thickness
    • Membrane area
oxygen transport and carbon monoxide
Oxygen Transport and Carbon Monoxide
  • Oxygen is carried through the blood stream by hemoglobin
  • Carbon Monoxide binds to hemoglobin 200x better.
carbon monoxide27
Carbon Monoxide
  • Sources?
    • Car Exhaust
    • Cigarette Smoke
smoking
Smoking

Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cancer

Over 2000 chemicals in tobacco smoke.

  • What gives the lung at the top its dark color?
carcinogens in tobacco
Carcinogens in Tobacco
  • Carcinogen: substance that increases the potential for tumor growth
  • 50 carcinogens in smoke (2 radioactive)

eg.- Nicotine, Formaldehyde

  • Implicated in 90% of lung cancers
dynamic human30

Dynamic Human

Mechanics of Breathing, Gas Exchange, and Carbon Monoxide

spirometry32
Spirometry
  • Respiratory volumes
    • tidal volume: air inhaled or exhaled in one quiet breath
    • inspiratory reserve volume: air in excess of tidal inspiration that can be inhaled with maximum effort
    • expiratory reserve volume: air in excess of tidal expiration that can be exhaled with maximum effort
    • residual volume: air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration, keeps alveoli inflated
spirometry exercise
Spirometry Exercise
  • Each group is to measure one members tidal and expiratory reserve volume.
  • Record on front board, indicating gender.
  • After all groups are done, average total to get class average tidal and expiratory reserve volume and compare to known averages.
bronchioscopy
Bronchioscopy
  • Flexible tube with camera attached
  • Used to identify blockages in bronchi and to biopsy tumors/growths
dynamic human35

Dynamic Human

Spirometry and Bronchoscopy

asthma
Asthma
  • Inflammation reaction in the lung caused by and allergen
  • Results in bronchoconstriction and sometimes suffocation
treatments for asthma
Treatments for Asthma
  • Inhalers – daily or rescue
    • Albuterol
    • Vanceril
  • Pills - daily
    • Accolade
    • Singular
  • Injection or Nebulizer - rescue
    • Ephinedrine
gross anatomy
Human/Cow

Trachea

Primary Bronchi

Lungs

How many lobes?

Larynx

Epiglottis

Cat

Left and right lungs

How many lobes?

Trachea

Primary Bronchi

Larynx

Gross Anatomy