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The Respiratory System. Chapter 13. What is respiratory system responsible for?. Cells use of oxygen Can’t do without it! Waste products of aerobic respiration CO 2 Cardiovascular and respiratory systems share job of providing O 2 and removing CO 2 Gas exchange vs transport.

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what is respiratory system responsible for
What is respiratory system responsible for?
  • Cells use of oxygen
    • Can’t do without it!
  • Waste products of aerobic respiration
    • CO2
  • Cardiovascular and respiratory systems share job of providing O2 and removing CO2
    • Gas exchange vs transport
functional anatomy
Functional Anatomy
  • Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, smaller branches and lungs which contain alveoli
  • Gas exchange with blood only happens in alveoli
  • All other structures just conducting passages

Figure 13.1

the nose
The Nose
  • Only externally visible part
  • Nostrils or nares – air enters
  • Nasal cavity – inside
  • Nasal septum
  • Olfactory receptors
    • Where are they?

Figure 13.2

respiratory mucosa of nose
Respiratory Mucosa of Nose
  • Lines nasal cavity
  • Covers network thin walled veins – blood flow warms air
    • Nose bleeds?
  • Moisten air, trap bacteria and debris
    • Lysozymes
  • Ciliated cells
    • Sluggish on cold days
  • Conchae – SA and turbulence
  • Palate – malformation?

Figure 13.2

sinuses
Sinuses
  • Paranasal sinuses – in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
    • Lighten skull
    • Resonance chamber for speech
    • Produce mucus
      • Nose blowing

Figure 13.2

diseases
Diseases
  • Sinusitis – sinus inflammation
    • Passageways between sinus and nasal cavity blocked - mucus or infectious matter
      • Sinus headache
  • Rhinitis – cold virus or allergens cause inflammation of nasal mucosa
    • Nasal congestion and drip
    • Mucosa continuous throughout tract – leads to infections in nasolacrimal ducts and sinuses
pharynx
Pharynx
  • Muscular passageway – throat
  • Food and air
  • Nasopharynx
    • Eustachian tubes drain here –leads to what?
    • Pharyngeal tonsil - adenoid
  • Oropharynx
    • Palatine tonsils
    • Lingual tonsils
      • Tosillitis
  • Laryngopharynx
    • Leaves here and enters larynx
    • Food enters esophagus

Figure 13.2

larynx
Larynx
  • Voice box
  • Routes food and air
  • Formed by 8 hyaline cartilages – largest thyroid cartilage – adam’s apple
  • Epiglottis – elastic cartilage
    • When swallow, larynx pulled up, epiglottis tips, lid over larynx
    • Not swallowing, larynx open
  • Cough reflex – doesn’t work when unconscious
  • Vocal chords – vibrate with air movement

Figure 13.2

trachea
Trachea
  • Windpipe
  • To 5th thoracic vert.
  • Rigid – walls reinforced with C shaped rings – hyaline cartilage
  • Rings
    • Open part to esophagus allows for expansion when swallow
    • Solid part keeps trachea open with pressure changes due to breathing
trachea1
Trachea
  • Lined with ciliated mucosa
  • Beat continuously upward
  • Dust and other debris
  • Swallow or spat out
  • Smoking inhibits and destroys

Figure 13.3

main bronchi
Main Bronchi
  • Branch from trachea into each lung
  • Rt. Bronchus is wider shorter and straighter
    • Choking
  • Air is warm, cleansed, and humidified

Figure 13.1

lungs
Lungs
  • Occupy entire thoracic cavity except what?
  • Divided into lobes
    • Rt – three lobes
    • Lf – two lobes
  • Surface covered with visceral pleura
  • Walls of thoracic cavity – parietal pleura
  • Pleural space filled with pleural fluid
  • Two layers move smoothly, but resist being separated
  • Lungs held tightly to wall

Figure 13.4a

in lungs
In Lungs
  • Bronchi divide into smaller pathways
  • Smallest conducting pathway is bronchioles
  • Bronchioles eventually terminate in alveoli
  • Alveoli only site of gas exchange
  • Lungs mostly air spaces
  • Lungs only weigh 2.5 lbs

Figure 13.5

respiration
Respiration
  • Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)– air movement in and out of lungs refreshing gas sacs (alveoli)
  • External respiration – gas exchange, O2 loading, CO2 unloading between pulmonary blood and alveoli.
    • Between blood and body exterior
  • Respiratory gas transport – O2 and CO2 transported to/from lungs and tissue cells of body via blood
  • Internal respiration – systemic capillaries, gas exchange between blood and tissue cells.
mechanics of breathing
Mechanics of Breathing
  • Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize the pressure.
  • In large, volume, gas molecules will spread out, reduced pressure
  • In smaller volume, gas molecules closer together, greater pressure
  • Intrapleural pressure is normally negative, prevents lung collapse

Figure 13.4a

inspiration
Inspiration
  • Inspiratory muscles – diaphragm and external intercostals
    • Contract, enlarge thoracic space
    • Lungs adhere to thoracic cavity
  • Intrapulmonary volume increases, decrease in pressure, sucks air in until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure

Figure 13.7a

expiration
Expiration
  • Passive process in healthy
  • Inspiratory muscles relax
  • Thoracic and intrapulmonary space decreases
  • Intrapulmonary pressure greater than atmospheric – gas flows out!

Figure 13.7b

expiration in diseased
Expiration in diseased
  • Spasms of bronchioles (asthma) or clogged with mucus or fluid (pneumonia)
    • Expiration active process
    • Internal intercostals compress
    • Abdominal muscles

Figure 13.7b

respiratory volumes and capacities
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
  • Factors affecting resp. capacity – size, sex, age, physical condition
  • Tidal Volume (TV)– normal breathing, about 500 ml in and out with each breath
  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – amount of air taken in forcibly, about 2100-3200 ml
  • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) – forcibly exhaled air, about 1200 ml
  • Residual Volume – air that remains in lungs after forced exhale, about 1200 ml
    • Allow for continuous gas exchange
  • Vital Capacity (VC) – Total amount of exchangeable air.
    • TV+IRV+ERV
    • About 4800 ml in healthy young male

Figure 13.9