The Respiratory System By Ms. Musich
Functions of the Respiratory System • 1) Moves oxygen from the outside environment into the body, • 2) Removes carbon dioxide and water from the body. This is a cartoony image of your lungs, the main organs of the respiratory system!
Why the Body Needs Oxygen • Your body needs oxygen to keep you alive, right? But why? • Oxygen is a key player in respiration. • Respiration is not breathing! • Respiration is the process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells. • This process of respiration is how your body creates energy for itself! Pretty cool, huh?
Homeostasis in Action! • Remember this funny word? • Now we know that our respiratory system inhales oxygen for us when we breathe, but that oxygen wouldn’t go anywhere without the help of our circulatory system. • Also, our bodies couldn’t carry out respiration without glucose (sugar) that our digestive system breaks down.
Did You Know? • The air you are breathing in right now is made of a mixture of gases. • Only about 21% of the air is oxygen. • 78% is nitrogen. • What percentage are we up to? • The remaining 1% is made up of carbon dioxide, helium, and various other gases.
Path of Air • Luckily, your respiratory system is equipped with tools so that less of that stuff gets in your lungs. • As air travels from the outside environment to the lungs, it passes through the following organs : nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. • It only takes a few seconds!
Nose Functions • Heats the air you breathe in. • Produces mucus that traps dust and bacteria. • Contains cilia (hairs) that sweep the mucus into the throat • Causes you to sneeze so that dust particles and bacteria leave the body.
Pharynx (FAR ingks) • Known as your throat • Shared with the digestive system • Both nose and mouth connect at the pharynx.
Trachea (TRAY kee uh) • Known as your windpipe. • Made of thick rings of cartilage that remain firm to strengthen the trachea and keep it open. • Why do you think it’s not squishy like the esophagus? • Also lined with cilia and mucus • Allows you to cough if there are dust or bacteria irritating your windpipe.
Bronchi & Lungs • Bronchi are the two main branches that lead to the lungs • Bronchitis sound familiar? • Each bronchus leads into a lung where it branches out into smaller and smaller branches. • At the ends of the smallest tubes are bundles of “grapes” called alveoli. • Alveoli are tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood.
Gas Exchange • After air enters the alveoli, oxygen passes through the wall of the alveoli and through the wall of a tiny blood vessel. Carbon dioxide and water pass from the blood into the alveoli.
Diaphragm • A large dome-shaped muscle that plays an important role in breathing located at the base of the lungs. • When you breathe in, the diaphragm moves down. • When you breathe out, the diaphragm moves up.
Larynx (LAR ingks) • Known as the voice box at the top of your trachea. • Holds your vocal chords which produce your voice. • Think of the way a balloon squeaks when you let air through the neck. That’s kind of how your vocal chords work. • Muscles makes your vocal chords contract and the movement makes the air molecules vibrate and create a sound!