By: Sam Mentkowski & Rachael Shulta RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
LEARNING TARGET: Identify the structures of the respiratory system and state the function of each structure. (k)
Truth or Baloney The organs of the respiratory system can be divided into two groups, or tracts: upper respiratory tract & lower respiratory tract. TRUE! The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses and the larynx. pharynx BALONEY!
Matching (Upper Respiratory Tract) Nose Nose hairs Mucous membrane Cilia covering membrane Produces mucous to provide warm moisture to the air entering the body Where air enters & leaves respiratory system Filters particles & push them to pharynx Trap dirt, dust & bacteria that live on them
Matching (cont.) Sinuses Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Passageway for air, drains naval cavities Air spaces in skull to reduce weight Receives objects from mouth Lower part of throat
Fill in the Blank (Lower Respiratory Tract) Flexibility & protection of larynx: thyroid cartilage. Opening through which air passes: glottis. Flap of tissue that covers your glottis when you swallow & blocks food from getting into your larynx: epiglottis. Vibrate to produce sound: vocal cords. Passageway for air into lungs, cilia catch impurities: trachea. WORD BANK: mucous membrane, epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, nasopharynx, trachea, glottis, vocal cords
Fill in the Blank (cont.) Branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs in lungs: bronchial tree. Enters lungs: bronchi. Smaller branches off of bronchi: bronchioles. Smallest parts of respiratory system, involved in gas exchange, surrounded by capillaries: alveoli. Encase the lungs, involved in regulating pressure in lungs: Pleural membranes. WORD BANK: alveoli, bronchi, epiglottis, bronchial tree, pleural membranes, mucous membranes, bronchioles
Diagram WORD BANK: Lung Pharynx Trachea Left Primary Bronchus Right Primary Bronchus Nose Larynx Secondary Bronchus Tertiary Bronchus Diaphragm 1 Nose 7 Pharynx 2 Larynx Trachea 8 3 Lung Right Primary Bronchus 4 9 Left Primary Bronchus 5 Secondary Bronchus Tertiary Bronchus 10 6 Diaphragm
LEARNING TARGET: Collect & analyze data regarding the warming function of the nasal passageways. (r)
Multiple Choice/T or B Why are nasal passageways better at heating the inhaled air than the mouth? a) mucous membranes around the nasal chonchae b) shorter distance to the lungs c) the nostrils are smaller openings d) because they are TRUTH OR BALONEY?! Inhaling colder air through the mouth is good for the lungs. can irritate BALONEY!
Evaluate Data According to the class data, the nasal passageways /mouth heat(s) the air better.
LEARNING TARGET: Describe the process of ventilation. (k)
Multiple Choice The definition of ventilation is.. a) the vital capacity plus the residual volume b) the intensity of breathing c) movement of air into and out of lungs d) running around in circles Another name for ventilation is.. a) chewing b) breathing c) sleeping d) running
Truth or Baloney! The membranes that surround the lungs are the pleural, parietal, and visceral membrane. TRUE! The lungs explode if its membranes are punctured. collapse BALONEY!
Process of Inhalation 1. Contraction of external intercostal muscles pulls ribs upward and outward. 2. Diaphragm contracts. 3. Volume of thoracic cavity increases. 4. Pressure in pleural cavity decreases. 5. Lungs inflate as air rushes in. WORD BANK: INCREASES, DECREASES, ELASTIC, DEFLATE, DIAPHRAGM, INFLATE, INTERCOSTAL
Process of Exhalation 1. Muscles of inhalation relax due to elastic recoil. 2. Volume of thoracic cavity decreases. 3. Pressure in pleural cavity increases. 4. Lungs deflate. WORD BANK: DECREASES, INCREASES, INFLATE, ELASTIC RECOIL, DEFLATE, DIAPHRAGM
Fill in the Blank Intercostal or Abdominal? The ribs are raised by the contraction of the intercostal muscles, which increases the size of thoracic cavity. Muscles that help to force out more than the normal volume of air by pulling the ribs downward & inward include the intercostalmuscles. The diaphragm can be forced to move higher than normal by the contraction of the abdominal muscles.
Multiple Choice Which of the following is false regarding surfactant? a) is a phospholipid b) reduces elastic recoil c) warming function of nasal passageway d) prevents complete deflation of our lungs
LEARNING TARGET: Determine how certain factors affect breathing rate. (r)
Matching Respiratory areas of the brain (2) Chemical Levels Emotional State Physical Fitness Control rate of respiratory pattern Controls breathing & heart rate Dependent on endurance/stamina Controls autonomic functions Provide feedback for control of breathing **You will be given a situation and you will need to explain what the respiratory response will be!
LEARNING TARGET: Define terms associated with lung volumes and capacities. (k)
Matching Tidal Volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve Volume The additional volume of air that can be inhaled with maximum effort after a normal inspiration The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort The additional volume of air that can be forcible exhaled after normal exhalation
Matching Vital Capacity Total Capacity Residual Volume The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation: VC = TV + IRV + ERV The vital capacity plus the residual volume: = VC + RV
LEARNING TARGET: Use a spirometer to obtain lung volumes and capacities and interpret the results. (s)
Interpret graph WORD BANK: Tidal Volume (TV) Vital Capacity (VC) Inspiratory Reserve Volume ( IRV) Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Residual Volume (RV) 1 2 4 3 5 6
Calculating Using Data Using the data, calculate the vital capacity. VC = TV + IRV + ERV Using the data, calculate the total lung capacity. TLC = VC + RV
Multiple Choice Why are breathing capacities measured? a) to see how warm the air we breathe is b) because it’s required by Mrs. Cerletty c) to track progress of diseases d) to find out what we ate for lunch Which of the following factors may affect a person’s VC? a) smoking b) body type c) exercise d) all of the above may affect a person’s VC
LEARNING TARGET: Define each step of the breathing cycle. (k)
Matching Ventilation External Respiration Transportation Internal Respiration Movement of gases through the bloodstream Inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide (breathing) Gas exchange occurring between blood and cells Gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood
LEARNING TARGET: Interpret diagrams related to the breathing cycle. (r)
Multiple Choice The definition of partial pressure is.. a) the pressure one gas produces in a mixture of gases b) the pressure half the gases produce in a mixture c) the pressure all the gases produce in a mixture d) a mixture of gases What causes gases to move from the alveoli to the capillaries or capillaries to alveoli? a) an abundance of pressure b) not enough pressure c) because our body knows to do that d) differences in partial pressure
Diagram Given partial pressure data, show the proper movement of gases at the site of alveoli.
Truth or Baloney! Alveoli arethe site of gas exchange. TRUE! The protein that transports oxygen to the cells is carbohydrates. hemoglobin BALONEY!
Multiple Choice What is the main function of gas exchange? a) to maintain a steady level of CO2 in the bloodstream b) moisturize the air c) turn blue blood to red blood d) to keep our feet healthy How is CO2 transported throughout the body? a) bound to hemoglobin b) dissolved in plasma c) bicarbonate d) all of the above are correct
LEARNING TARGET: Relate the breathing cycle to everyday situations. (r)
Matching Hyperventilation Hypoventilation Exposure to carbon monoxide Smoking Exercise Respiratory illnesses Traveling from low to high altitude locations
LEARNING TARGET: Analyze data related to breathing cycles. (s)
Truth or Baloney When you breathe normally, you are inhaling more O2. TRUE! O2 is the most responsible gas for stimulating increases & decreases in the breathing cycle. BALONEY! CO2 CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER! During exercise, CO2 production increases/decreases.
Fill in the Blank When a person hyperventilates in fresh air, his CO2 content decreases. A decrease in CO2is followed by a decrease in the rate of respiration. The supply of blood CO2 during hypoventilation into a paper bag increases. An increase in blood CO2 content is followed by an increase in the rate of respiration. WORD BANK: Increase, decrease, increases, decreases
GOODLUCK ON YOUR TEST! TRY NOT TO HYPERVENTILATE!