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GAP Writing/Grammar. Shinsuke Tsuchiya. Today’s outline. Singular/Plural (Subject- serb agreement) Wh -questions (North-Star ) Outline. Singular. This brick is heavy. That airplane flies fast. Every dog speaks Japanese. Each person has a responsibility.

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gap writing grammar

GAP Writing/Grammar

Shinsuke Tsuchiya

today s outline
Today’s outline
  • Singular/Plural (Subject-serb agreement)
  • Wh-questions (North-Star)
  • Outline

This brick is heavy.

That airplane flies fast.

Every dog speaks Japanese.

Each person has a responsibility.

There is a scary dog!

One of the dogsis kind.

None of the students is mean.

Education is very important.

*A computer game is very fun.

*a generic noun (symbol of a whole group)

Singular: noun as a single item (count) or entity (non-count).

Ex. (count) brick, dog, airplane, person, foot,

Ex. (non-count) water, sugar, truth, education, driving, history, grammar, food, fruit, money, oxygen, soup, paper, knowledge etc.

singular gerund
  • A gerund used as the subject of the sentence requires a singular verb.

Ex. Growing flowers is her hobby.


Plural: more than one of the same noun.

Ex. (count) bricks, dogs, airplanes, people, feet

Ex. (non-count) N/A

These dogs are scary.

Those people are kind.

Some airplanes are cheap.

A lot of airplanes are flying.

Lots of people study English.

Other airplanes are expensive.

*Computer games are fun.

*talking about the games in general.

subject verb agreement
Subject-verb agreement
  • Third person singular in the simple present tense

Ex. He lives in Boston.

  • ‘Every’ and ‘each’ are always followed by immediately by singular nouns.

Ex. Each person has a responsibility.

Ex. Everyman, woman, and child needs love.

  • Sometimes a phrase or clause separates a subject from its verb. These interrupting structures do not affect basic agreement.

Ex. That book on political parties is interesting.

Ex. My dog, as well as my cats, likes cat food.

Ex. The book that I got from my parents was very interesting.

  • Sometimes a phrase or clause separates a subject from its verb. These interrupting structures do not affect basic agreement.

Ex. The ideas in that book are interesting.

Ex. My dogs, as well as my cat, like cat food.

Ex. The books I bought at the bookstore were expensive.

subject verb agreement summary
Subject-verb agreementSummary


Singular count/non-count nouns

Gerund (subject)

This, that, there is, one of, each, every, none


Plural count nouns

these, those, there are, some, a lot of, lots of, other, etc.

error correction practice
Error Correction Practice

1. I played computer game>

2. Some experience >

3. This kind of games >

4. Some financial problem >

5. Other addiction >

6. Games have similar story >


1. Some way >

2. They were teenager >

3. Those violent game >

4. Ideas about real life situation >

5. For these reason >

6. There are different kind of games >

7. General knowledges about world >

error correction practice subject verb agreement
Error Correction PracticeSubject-verb agreement

1. Games was created for humans >

2. Those violent games is more… >

3. Playing games teach us about real life >

4. You really cares about them. >

5. When someone play games >


1. People that creates games >

2. Playing games help us >

3. Playing games always teach us something >

4. He also learn about driving >

5. A kid that plays with his cars learn how to share >

wh questions in the simple present tense
Wh- questions in the simple/present tense
  • What do you know about Wh- questions?
wh q uestions simple present tense
Wh- questions (Simple present tense)

Wh- questions

1. ask for information

(what, where, when, when, who, why, and how)

2. use ‘do’ or ‘does ‘the base form’ of the verb.

Ex. Where do you run? Where does he run?

Where is the class? Where are my friends?

3. use ‘can’ and ‘should’ sometimes

Ex. Where can we run? Where should I run?

4. can become a subject sometimes

Ex. Who grows apples near Des Moines? What grows in Alaska?

  • Do exercises 2, 3 and 4.
  • How can you use these questions in our brochure?


  • What is hinamatsuri?
    • a doll festival held in March 3rd every year.
    • the girl’s day in Japan
    • -it celebrates girl’s growth
  • What is the history behind hinamatsuri?
    • it began in Heian period (794 to 1185)
    • dolls were set afloat (taking troubles or bad spirits with the dolls)
  • What are the customs?
    • families display the dolls in February until March 3rd
    • families takes the dolls down immediately after the festival
    • leaving the dolls past March 4 will result in a late marriage for the daughter.
  • Is your outline similar to the example?
  • Event/festival
  • Wh-question 1
    • Facts
  • Wh-question 2
    • Facts