Grammar Backgrounder English 102: Writing with Power and Persuasion • This overview of grammar, punctuation and style will help you write with greater clarity, accuracy and power. You should be fully fluent with all of this material by the end of the course. To review the PowerPoint effectively • Please put the presentation into slide show mode (The numerous animations and many slides will look like gibberish in in normal view) • Left click your mouse to advance the slides. After you advance the slide, look out for the instruction “Please Left Click” to launch animations.
Table of Contents (Main Sections) • The Sentence (LINK)The sentence is the key component of all writing. Words are separate, isolated entities until they are placed in understandable order in sentences, which give logic and sense to all writing. Understanding how to write great sentences is the basis of excellent writing. • Punctuation (LINK)Good punctuation is necessary for clear communication. This section focuses on the most common issue in punctuation. We focus on the comma, which enables use to clarify what we are trying to say and eliminate confusion and misunderstanding. • Common Errors (LINK)Whether it is confusing words that sound alike (homonyms), such “to” and “too” or “they’re,” “their” and “there”) or pronouns that do not have a clear antecedent (the original word that they are intended to represent), there are common mistakes that many writers make repeatedly. This section focuses on avoiding committing bedeviling errors.
Table of Contents (Main Sections) 4. Proof, Proof, Proof (LINK)Solid proofreading is the best tool for avoiding mistakes, typographical errors, and embarrassment. In this section, you can find tips for becoming a successful proofreader and easily enhance the quality of your writing. Short, Sweet and Precise (LINK)Writers should strive to be as precise, understandable, and to the point as possible to ensure accuracy, brevity, and clarity. This section examines how to avoid unnecessary words, redundancy, and colloquial terms and slang that are inappropriate in a formal paper. It also looks at active and passive voice. You should use active voice, because it is more direct, dynamic, and concise. Resources for Writers(LINK)A selection of books, websites and other resources that will enable you to up your game and become a better writer. 7. Glossary (LINK)The glossary is a place to refresh your memory about the meaning of some key words. Many of the words in the text are hyperlinked to this glossary, and each word is hyperlinked back to the page where it is first used.
Table of Contents • The Sentence • Slide 5: The Sentence: The Key to Grammar LINK • Slides 6-7: Great Sentences LINK • Slide 8: The Anatomy of an almost Perfect Sentence LINK • Slide 9: Independent and Dependent Clauses LINKSlide 10: Run-On Sentences LINKSlides 11-12: Comma Splices LINK • Slide 13: Free the Preposition LINK • Slide 14: Pronoun Case LINK • Slide 15: Rules, Rules, Rules LINK • Slide 16: Subject—Verb Agreement LINK • Slide 17: Collective Nouns LINK • 2. Punctuation • Slide 21: Punctuation Makes a Difference (LINK) • Slides 22-23: Bless the Comma (LINK) • Slide 24: More on Parenthetical Expressions (LINK) • Slide 25: The Comma’s Identity Crisis (LINK) • Slide 26: A Comma—The Difference between Life and Death (LINK) • Slide 27: The Panda Eats Shoots and Leaves (LINK)
Punctuation: Table of Contents • 2. Punctuation (Cont.) • Slide 28: Commas and Modifiers (LINK) • Slide 29: An Exercise on Commas (LINK) • Slide 30: The Dash (LINK) • Slides 31-33: The Hyphen and its Roles (LINK) • Slide 34-37: Conon-oscopy: Examining the Colon (LINK) • 3. Common Errors • Slide 40: Headline Writer Headaches (LINK) • Slide 41: Can’t We just Get Along (LINK) • Slides 42-44: Common Errors (LINK) • Slide 45: To vs. Too (LINK) • Slides 46-47: Seven Special Rules to Live by in Formal (LINK) • Slide 48: Choose Words Wisely (LINK) • 4. Proof, Proof, Proof • Slide 51: The Glaring Error (LINK) • Slide 52: Why We Proofread (LINK) • Slides 53: A Common—and Embarrassing—Error (LINK) • Slides 54-55: Proofreading Tips (LINK)
Proof, Proof, Proof: Table of Contents • 5. Short, Sweet & Precise • Slide 58: The Experts Agree; Brevity is a Virtue in Writing (LINK) • Slide 59: Words to Avoid; Filler Words (LINK) • Slide 60: Don’t Double Team the Reader (LINK) • Slide 61: Words to Avoid: Colloquialisms (LINK) • Slide 62: Cutting Words Down to Size (LINK) • Slide 65-69: Active Voice vs. Passive Voice (LINK) • 6. Resources (LINK) • 7. Glossary (LINK)
PART 1—The Sentence Understanding sentence structure is fundamental to great writing. Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
The Sentence: Table of Contents • The Sentence • Slide 5: The Sentence: The Key to Grammar LINK • Slides 6-7: Great Sentences LINK • Slide 8: The Anatomy of an almost Perfect Sentence LINK • Slide 9: Independent and Dependent Clauses LINKSlide 10: Run-On Sentences LINKSlides 11-12: Comma Splices LINK • Slide 13: Free the Preposition LINK • Slide 14: Pronoun Case LINK • Slide 15: Rules, Rules, Rules LINK • Slide 16: Subject—Verb Agreement LINK • Slide 17: Collective Nouns LINK
The Key to Grammar Focus on the Sentence and Integrating its Parts • “If one understands that a sentence is a structure of logical relationships and that the number of relationships involved is finite, one understands too that there is only one error to worry about, the error of being illogical and only one rule to follow: make sure that every component of your sentences is related to the other components in a way that is clear and unambiguous.” • Stanley Fish, How to Write a Sentence: • And How to Read One Missing Conjunction Plural Noun Misplaced Modifier Dangling Participle Singular Verb Sentence Fragment Singular Pronoun
Great Sentences A great sentence communicates captures your attention, inducing you to read on. These opening lines of exceptional novels all share the same trait. After you read the first sentence, you cannot help but move on to the second. It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. George Orwell, 1984 Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel AurelianoBuendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice. Gabriel GarcíaMárquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York. Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar All this happened, more or less. Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five
Great Sentences, Part II There was a boy called Eustace Clarence Scrubb, and he almost deserved it. C.S. Lewis, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader You better not never tell nobody but God. Alice Walker, The Color Purple Ships at a distance have every man’s wish on board. Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God It was a pleasure to burn. Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 The sky above the port was the color of television, tuned to a dead channel. William Gibson, Neuromancer I write this sitting in the kitchen sink. Dodie Smith, I Capture the Castle
The Anatomy of an Near Perfect Sentence Please Left Click Subject Conjunction Predicate Subject It was in the books while it was still in the sky. John Updike (Quoted in Stanley Fish, How to Write a Sentence: And How to Read One) Predicate Stanley Fish sees this as an almost perfect sentence. Written by John Updike, it describes what it was like to see baseball Hall of Famer Ted Williams hit a home run in his last at bat in Fenway Park. According to Fish, “The fulcrum of the sentence is ‘while.’” One side of the pivot point is a metaphor: this moment will be described “in the book” before it hits the ground. On the other side, the ball “was still in the sky” in three senses. It has “not yet landed,” “its motion is arrested,” and it will “remain forever, in the sky of the books, in the record of the game’s highest, most soaring achievements.” With the two clauses balancing on the word “while,” the sentence epitomizes how this memorable moment instantly became frozen in the memory of the writer and the history of baseball. Fish, Stanley (2011-01-25). How to Write a Sentence: And How to Read One (Kindle Locations 167-173). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.
Independent and Dependent Clauses An independent clause is agroup of words that contains a subjectand a predicate and expresses a complete thought. “Grandpa Jody knows how to rap.” A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. “When Grandpa Jody raps” It is essential to be able to recognize the difference between independent and dependent clauses, because you can make serious grammatical errors if you do not. Purdue Online Writing Lab has an excellent fact sheet on the topic. It also has a very short exercise. Use the exercise to make sure you understand the concept.
Run-On Sentences • What is a run-on sentence? • A run-on sentence has two or more independent clauses without proper punctuation. For example, • He wears his silly costume everywhere he thinks he’s Iron Man. • “How do you fix a run-on sentence?” • It depends on what you want to say (see table).
The Comma Splice Please Left Click The comma splice is all too common. and
The Comma Splice • What is a comma splice? • A sentence that has two or more independent clauses with a comma but not a conjunction is a comma splice. For example, • He slept until noon every day, he goes to bed early. • How do you fix a comma splice? • It depends on what you want to say (see table).
Free the Preposition! Never end a sentence with a preposition? This is an outdated rule that was based on a old view of Latin usage. If we insist on this construction, our language will become clumsier. Sometimes, ending a sentence with a preposition can be elegant (see below). “We are the ones we have been waiting for.” This is much better than the “correct” version. “We are the ones for whom we have been waiting .” A Relevant Conversation Old-Fashioned Grammarian: “Ouch!” Hip Grammarian: “Are you hurt? What did you step on?” Old-Fashioned Grammarian: “Never end a sentence with a preposition. You should say on what did you step?” Hip Grammarian: “Ok, What did you step on, IDIOT?”
Pronoun Case Three Cases: Subjective, Objective, and Possessive. Pronouns in the subjective case act as subjects. I, you, he, she, we, they, it, who Pronouns in the objective case act as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. me, you, him, her, us, them, who Pronouns in the possessive case indicate ownership adjectives. my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, it, its, our, ours, their, theirs, whose For Example, I grabbed my book from off the desk, because it belonged to me, but Sheldon and Thad snatched it from me, because they said it was theirs.
Rules, Rules, Rules Is it who or whom? Use "who" and "whoever" as subject pronouns, for example “Knock, knock.” “Who's there?” “Please hold.” “Please hold whom.” “Your knock is important to me and will be answered in the order it was knocked.”Use "whom" and "whomever" as object pronouns. For example “To whom it may concern, I will all my worldly possession to my dearest friend, my poodle Jezebel.”
Subject-Verb Agreement Do not Confuse the Subject with the Object of the Preposition • Prepositional phrases • Preposition [e.g. "of," "at," and "in“] + Object [noun or pronoun] • "Each of them is distinct." • "The suggestions in his proposal have merit." Please Left Click Subject Verb Object
Collective Nouns Collective Nouns are Singular . . . Most of the time Everyone knows your family is dysfunctional. Nearly 25% of the population is Muslim. But Sometimes . . . A singular collective noun expresses a plural idea and needs a plural verb. Our staff work hard to meet their goals and deadlines. The orchestra are tuning their instruments. The cast have been practicing their lines. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGMJtog25eI
PART 2: Punctuation I bet the dishes are not too clean either.
Punctuation: Table of Contents • 2. Punctuation • Slide 21: Punctuation Makes a Difference (LINK) • Slides 22-23: Bless the Comma (LINK) • Slide 24: More on Parenthetical Expressions (LINK) • Slide 25: The Comma’s Identity Crisis (LINK)Slide 26: A Comma—The Difference between Life and Death (LINK) • Slide 27: The Panda Eats Shoots and Leaves (LINK) • Slide 28: Commas and Modifiers (LINK) • Slide 29: An Exercise on Commas—What is wrong with these sentences? (LINK) • Slide 30: The Dash (LINK) • Slides 31-33: The Hyphen and its Roles (LINK) • Slide 34-37: Conon-oscopy: Examining the Colon (LINK)
Punctuation Makes a Difference. A woman without her man is nothing. A woman: without her, man is nothing.
Bless the Comma The Comma, Agent of Clarification We would be lost without the comma, which enables us to provide unambiguous communication by Marking off sequences of words and phrases or words where there are no conjunctions or only a final conjunction. For example, “During Thanksgiving dinner, Mark managed to enrage his mother, father, both sisters, his brother, Aunt Flo, Uncle Linus, Father Jim, and the next-door neighbor.” Introducing quotations “She said, ‘Some village is missing its idiot.’” Clarifying meaning and preventing ambiguity. Without the comma for example, we would assume Huey, Dewey, and Louie were not Donald Duck’s nephews, but three other cabinet members: “I had a horrible dream that Donald Trump was president and he named Rush Limbaugh, Mr. Ed, Donald Duck’s nephews Huey, Dewey, and Louie, And the Three Stooges to his cabinet.” Preventing run-on sentences by separating two independent clauses when used with conjunctions. For example, “Hate the sin, but love the sinner.”
Bless the Comma (continued) The Comma, Agent of Clarification Separating two or more adjectives that describe the same noun. For example, “My mean-spirited, vicious, ignorant, bigoted friend is a great guy.” Indicating distinct pauses or shifts in tone. For example, “Call me a cab.” “Ok you’re a cab, stupid twit.” Setting parenthetical expressions apart from the rest of the sentence. For example, “She, beautiful and aloof, walk toward me, and I, trembling and pale, ran away.” “Nancy waved enthusiastically at the docking ship, laughing joyously.” “If you are the smartest person you know, you must hang with a pretty dumb crowd.” Setting off long propositional phrases (4 words or more) “In the heat of the moment, he swore angrily.”
More on Parenthetical Expressions What is a parenthetical expression? A parenthetical expression is a phrase that is not central to the main idea of the sentence. We pause when we speak these phrases and use commas when we write them. They are to Add unnecessary, but useful information. “Kristen Stewart used to be my favorite actress, but Jennifer Lawrence, the winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress in 2013, is my favorite one now.” Provide clarifying information “The student over there, the one wearing the top hat and tails, made a very strange comment about the party.” Introduce a sentence After the movie, I tried to give her a kiss, but she burst out laughing. While he was not as ugly as she said, he sure was ugly. Words that begin introductory, parenthetical clauses include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, and while
The Comma’s Identity Crisis Please Left Click Use a comma only if the name or phrase is the only one of its kind. Cecelia saw the movie, Catching Fire, with her friend, Sabrina. Use comma if Taken 2 is the only movie in the world. Use comma if Sabrina is Cecelia’s only friend. Cecelia saw the movie Taken 2 with her friend Sabrina. Cecelia saw her favorite movie, Taken 2, with her oddest friend, Sabrina. When the words “a,” “an” or “some,” or a number, come before the description or identification of a name, use a comma. Cecelia saw a movie, Taken 2, with three friends, Sabrina, Philicia, and Denitia.
A Comma: the Difference between Life and Death Please Left Click , Let’s eat grandma! She is so sweet! Remove the comma And you change the meaning
Please Left Click , The panda eats shoots and leaves. It’s this without a comma Add a comma . . . And it’s this Thanks to Lynne Truss for this classic example of the misplaced comma and her wonderful book Eats Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation.
A Special Tip Commas and Modifiers Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Do not add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with non-coordinate adjectives or an adverb and the adjective it modifies. If you can put “and” between the adjectives or reverse the order of the adjectives and the sentence would still make sense, you have coordinative adjectives and you should use commas. The same rule applies when you have and adverb and an adjective. Reverse the order or add and. These still make sense. He took a swim in the polluted, gray-green water. He took a swim in the polluted and gray-green water. He took a swim in the gray-green, polluted water But not these He is a fiercely loyal friend. He is a fiercely and loyal friend. (!) He is a loyal fiercely friend.(!)
What Is Wrong with these Sentences? Review these sentences to determine the problem. Left click for the answers. Please Left Click , My father, who gave new meaning to the expression hard working never took a vacation. Although the weather was bitter cold he still walked the ten miles to her house. Philip Roth, author of “Portnoy’s Complaint” and many other books is a perennial contender for the Nobel Prize. “The way they’ve been playing, the team will be lucky to survive the first round,” the coach said “I’m just hoping someone gets a hot hand.” He is a fine person however I can’t stand him. , , , . , , ;
The Dash A dash can be more effective than a comma— so, say the experts. He was worse than a provincial, he was parochial. He was worse than a provincial—he was parochial. Henry James on David Thoreau Each person is born to one possession which outvalues all his others: his last breath. Each person is born to one possession which outvalues all his others—his last breath. Mark Twain Thirty: the promise of a decade of loneliness, a thinning list of single men to know, a thinning briefcase of enthusiasm, thinning hair. Thirty—the promise of a decade of loneliness, a thinning list of single men to know, a thinning briefcase of enthusiasm, thinning hair. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
The Hyphen The Evolution of Compound Words Some compound nouns remain two words, some use hyphens, and some are merged into one. There is no set rule. So, when in doubt, look it up! Hyphenating Adjectives A Special Tip The general rule–hyphenate between two or more adjectives when they come before a noun and act as a single idea and when necessary to avoid confusion. For example, Pot-bellied man Long-haired composer Long-term relationship Why? Dirty-magazine rack vs. Dirty magazine rack Two-week sessions vs. Two week sessions If you can put an “and” between the two words, do not use a hyphen. Pistol-packing mama (not pistol and packing mama) Bloody-minded mama (not bloody and minded mama)
The Hyphen Part 2 Hyphenating Adverbs The general rule: When adverbs not ending in “ly” are used as compound words in front of a noun, hyphenate. For example, Well-known actress Beady-eyed neighbor Fine-tuned guitar When the combination of words is used after the noun, do not hyphenate. For example, “The neighbor gave me the creeps when he stared at me with his beady eyes.” Do not hyphenate adverbs end in “ly” (If the word ends in “ly,” it is obviously an adverb and no clarification is required.) For example, Rarely sung anthem Wickedly dressed Goth Carefully phrased request For example, The wickedly dressed Goth beckoned me from across the room, scaring the hell out of me. When the provocatively clothed beauty slinked across the room, I felt terror and joy, but my dream collapsed when she embraced the man standing two feet in front of me Use Hyphens for Numbers over twenty when written out: twenty-three. For example, Will you still need me, will you still feed me when I’m sixty-four. Proper nouns when adding a prefix. For example, Anti-American Un-American Pre-Cambrian
More Roles for Hyphens Use hyphens for Prefixes of one letterX-ray B-team T-shirt F-troop X-men R-rated movie The prefixes ex, all, self and sometimes crossex-wife, all-knowing, self-actuated, cross-reference Words in which prefixes end in A and I and the root word begins with the same letter.semi-conscious ultra-orthodox quasi-instruction ultra-ambitious anti-intellectual This is sometimes true with the E, O, and U, but check if you are unsure.co-op, co-conspirator, co-equal (but not coordinator or cooperation) de-emphasize However, the following prefixes rarely need hyphens: non, un, in, dis, co, anti, hyper, pre, re, post, out, bi, counter, de, semi, mis, mega, micro, inter, over, andundernonemergency, unstable, inpatient, disorder, coworker, antimatter, hyperactive, prejudge, reoccur, outmoded, bimonthly, counterculture, decompress, semiannual, misjudge, microphone, interconnected, override, underestimate Use Hyphens with prefix when not to do so would cause confusionre-cover vs. recover (I will re-cover the sofa when I recover from my hangover.) re-lease vs. release (I will re-lease the apartment when they release me from prison.
A Special Tip Colon-oscopy: Examining the Colon Rule One—A colon always follows an independent clause. For example, Correct: Please pack the following for our camping trip: “Cristal, Maybach, diamonds on your timepiece, jet planes, islands, tigers on a gold leash.” Incorrect: Please pack: “Cristal, Maybach, diamonds on your timepiece, jet planes, islands, tigers on a gold leash.”* Replace the colon with “namely.” If the sentence still make sense, the colon is the right choice. For example, Your new boyfriend is vey nice, except he has a few minor flaws: egotism, nastiness, offensiveness, ignorance, slovenliness, chauvinism, stinginess, greediness, and viciousness. Your new boyfriend is vey nice, except he has a few minor flaws, namely egotism, nastiness, offensiveness, ignorance, slovenliness, chauvinism, stinginess, greediness, and viciousness. * Lorde
Colons and Lists • Rule One: The rules for colons are the same when used in bullets. • Of course, you would be a good couple, because you have so many complementary, endearing qualities: • Extreme vanity • Unrivaled egocentricity • Extraordinary nastiness • Unparalleled narcissism • Of course, you would be a good couple, because of your • Extreme vanity • Unrivaled egocentricity • Extraordinary nastiness • Unparalleled narcissism An independent clause requires a colon. Don’t use a colon following a dependent clause.
Silver Bullets and Numbers • Rule Two—The rules for colons are the same when used in lists: • Of course, you would be a good couple, because you • have so many complementary qualities: • Your nastiness is extraordinary. • Your narcissism is unbelievably extreme. • Your vanity knows no bounds. • Your egocentricity is remarkable in its intensity. • Of course, you would be a good couple, because of your • extraordinary nastiness • extreme vanity • unparalleled narcissism • unrivaled egocentricity Use terminal punctuation if your bullets are sentences If bullets are not sentences, choose one or the other. However, no end punctuation is more readable. If the bullet is a sentence, capitalize the first letter of the bullet. If it is not, it is your choice.
Bullets: Order and Parallelism Rule Three—Use numbers if the sequence is important How to unlock my front door Remove the padlock to the chain attaching the security bars to the iron railing. Unlock the security bars using the three different keys for the three locks. Remove the security bars. Unlock the six locks on the front door. Take out the steak from your pocket. Open the front door. Show the two pit bulls and the three Dobermans the steak before throwing it as far from the stairs as possible. Run up the stairs and into the bedroom as if your life depended on it, because, in fact, it does. Slam the bedroom door shut and block the door with the dresser. Rule Four—Make sure your clauses parallel (all verbs, nouns, infinitives, etc. The bullets above all begin with verbs.
PART 3—Common Errors Avoid grammatical errors if you do not want to give people the wrong impression
Common Errors: Table of Contents • 3. Common Errors • Slide 40: Headline Writer Headaches (LINK) • Slide 41: Can’t We just Get Along (LINK) • Slides 42-44: Common Errors (LINK) • Slide 45: To vs. Too (LINK) • Slides 46-47: Seven Special Rules to Live by in Formal (LINK) • Slide 48: Choose Words Wisely (LINK)
Headline Writer Headaches Actual Headlines Found by the Columbia Journalism Review Escaped wallaby caught using huge fishing net Man who stopped breathing in police car dies Mother arrested after drowning 173 animals seized; 2 face cruelty charges La. Chimpanzees get pregnant despite vasectomies Soccer-Mom madam cools her heels in Riker’s, but will her clients get off? Shark bites land surfer in hospital Afghanistan: U.S. pays $50,000 per killing to massacre families In Three Rivers, community and family bore a hero 1 million get shot to save on loans
Can’t We Just Get Along? Subject-Verb Agreement: The Simples Rule of All Singular nouns take singular verbs and plural nouns take plural verbs. I am skipping class to party. We are skipping class to party. But . . . Everyone __skipping class to party. Everyone and everybody are singular nouns and take singular verbs Everyone is skipping class to party. So are anyone, anybody, no one, and nobody It is too bad that no one is skipping class to party. Please Left Click is are
Common Errors Please Left Click Their They’re There are common errors that will loose lose you points if you use them. Many of your you’re you are going to make them. Its It’s a big problem and could effect affect your future more than you’re your grade.
More Common Errors LAY DOWN! It’s lie down, stupid! Lay versus Lie Lay means to put something down. As a transitive verb, it needs a direct object to follow it. For example, Jane lay the blanket on her sleeping husband. Lie means to rest or recline. It is an intransitive verb; consequently, it does not require a direct object: Jane’s husband lies on the couch when she is not looking
More Common Errors Please Left Click Missing comma after introductory element.By the time I got out of bed˄it was well past noon. Vague pronoun referenceAlthough the motorcycle hit the tree, it was not damaged. (Is "it" the motorcycle or the tree?)I don't think they should show violence on TV. Wrong wordListening to the professors lectures, I was for a long time. Wrong or missing preposition.Will you accept that it is time change. , Is it the tree or the motorcycle? Who are they? sedated Left Click Once sedentary of for Left Click Once
To vs. Too Too Many Cooks Too Much Homework Too Much Makeup
Seven Special Rules to Live by in Formal Writing Rule I: No Contractions! Rule 2: No Slang Rule 3: No Sentence Fragments Rule 4: No Run-On Sentences or Comma Splices Rule 5: No Papers with No Paragraphs Rule 6: No Plagiarism
Rule 7: Then, Then, Then . . . Rule 7: Do not overuse the word “then” The Day After: A Brief Play INT. HALL OF APARTMENT – MORNING Bored POLICE OFFICER pounds of door to Apartment 666. A bedraggled, weary young MAN answers the door. MAN Is there something wrong, officer? OFFICER Where were you on Saturday, January 1, 2013 MAN After I woke up at 4:00 PM, I spent an hour trying to remember what happened the night before, then I called my girlfriend and apologized, then I searched for my car for a couple of hours, then I went to the police station to pay my fine, and then I went to my favorite bar to relax. Then they told me they would have me arrested if I ever show-up there again. Then I went home, and then I went back to bed.