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Chapter 13: Middle Ages in Europe. The Middle Ages – def. medieval period in Europe lasting from 500 – 1500 A.D. Taking place as a result of the gradual decline of the Roman Empire Primary unifying force in Western Europe = Roman Catholic Church (THE church). The Middle Ages. How?

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the middle ages def medieval period in europe lasting from 500 1500 a d
The Middle Ages – def. medieval period in Europe lasting from 500 – 1500 A.D.
  • Taking place as a result of the gradual decline of the Roman Empire
  • Primary unifying force in Western Europe = Roman Catholic Church (THE church)
the middle ages
The Middle Ages

How?

  • 1) the Pope anointed Holy Roman Emperors
  • 2) missionaries carried Christianity to Germanic Tribes
  • 3) Church served social, political and religious needs of the people
foundation of early medieval society
Foundation of Early Medieval Society:

1. Classical heritage of Rome – Roman culture still important, even though in decline – giving way to Germanic culture

2. Christian Beliefs – most of Western Europe, including more Germanic Tribes

3. Customs of Germanic Tribes – ex: oral tradition of song and language, no written language, violence and warfare

changes in western europe
Changes in Western Europe:

1. Disruption of Trade – frequent invasions caused trade to break down, causing a decline in cities and a lack of money in Western Europe

2. Downfall of Cities – cities were abandoned, lack of leadership

3. Population Shifts – people left cities for rural areas

changes in western europe1
Changes in Western Europe:

4. Decline of Learning – invaders couldn’t read or write, Roman culture in decline, knowledge of Greek nearly disappeared, only literate people = monks/priests

5. Loss of a Common Language – different dialects of Latin gave rise to Romance languages

influence of the roman catholic church in early middle ages
Influence of the Roman Catholic Church in Early Middle Ages:

1. Roman authority declined, while church authority grew

2. Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements – monks were the few who could read and write = literate

influence of the roman catholic church in early middle ages1
Influence of the Roman Catholic Church in Early Middle Ages:

3. Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes.

4. Clovis converted the Franks to Christianity

influence of the roman catholic church in early middle ages2
Influence of the Roman Catholic Church in Early Middle Ages:

5. Pope Leo III anointed Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Emperor in 800 A.D.

6. Parish priests served religious and social needs of the people

the rise of feudalism
The Rise of Feudalism:
  • Background:

1. Invaders destroyed Roman ability to protect people of Western Europe

2. people, in response to this lack of protection, entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords who promised them protection

the rise of feudalism1
The Rise of Feudalism:
  • Fief – piece of land
  • Lord – landowner, granted land to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and military service
  • Vassal – one who received land from a lord, pledged loyalty and military service
  • Serf – workers/peasants who were tied/bound to the land – worked to maintain the manor
the rise of feudalism2
The Rise of Feudalism:
  • Medieval Manor – lord’s estate, houses and land

-had its own rigid class structure and self-sufficient economy

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King

Nobles/

Church Officials

Knights

Serfs