WHS AP Psychology Unit 8: Motivation, Emotion and Stress Essential Task 8-3: Essential Task: Identify and apply basic motivational concepts to understand behavior with specific attention to instincts for animals, biological factors like needs, drives, and homeostasis, and operant conditioning factors like incentives, and intrinsic versus extrinsic motivators.
Drive Reduction Theory We are here Arousal Theory Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs HumanDrives Measures Sources Motivation&Emotion Intrinsic/ Extrinsic Motivation Motivation Stress Effects Coping Explain complex motives(eating, aggression, achievement and sex) TheoriesofEmotion Opponent Process James-Lange CognitiveAppraisal Cannon-Bard Schachtertwo-factor
Essential Task 8-3: Outline • Basic motivational concepts to understand behavior • Instincts for animals • Biological factors like • Drives (Primary vs. Secondary) • Homeostasis • Operant conditioning factors • Incentives • intrinsic motivators • Extrinsic motivators
Motives vs. Emotions • Motive • Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior • a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. • Emotion • Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior
Instincts for animals NOT humans. • Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout the species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951). Outline
Humans don’t have instincts • Fell out of favor in psychology • A Meta-analysis during the height of this craze found 5759 ‘instincts’ • Most important human behavior is learned • Human behavior is rarely inflexible and found throughout the species • Humans have reflexes but not instincts.
Biological Drives (Primary Drives) • Unlearned drive based on a physiological state found in all animals • Motivate behavior necessary for survival • Hypothalamus • Hunger • Thirst • Sex • Evolutionary biology talks about the four Fs (fighting, fleeing, feeding and reproducing).
Homeostasis – explains why we stop fulfilling biological drives. • The ability or tendency of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium or balance. • A state of psychological equilibrium obtained when tension or a drive has been reduced or eliminated.
Secondary Drives – not biologically dictated • Learned drives • Wealth • Success • Fame
Operant Conditioning Factors • Incentives – environmental cues that trigger a motive. • When a stimulus creates goal-directed behavior
Intrinsic Motivators • Refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. • It is stronger than external motivation
Extrinsic Motivators • Refers to motivation that comes from external or outside rewards, such as money or grades.