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  1. Welcome • FMB Oxford Detectors and Diagnostics Technologies – an update Steve Syme John Gordon

  2. Contact details Contact details: • Business Manager, Detectors and Diagnostics • Steve.Syme@FMB-Oxford.com Website: • www.fmb-oxford.com

  3. Capabilities and installed base • Capabilities and installed base • Detectors and diagnostics • Electronics • New items

  4. Who are FMB Oxford? • UK Limited Company • Wholly-owned subsidiary of FMB in Berlin • >US$10M turnover • 50 staff • Specialising in Design, Assembly, Test and Install • Operating from 2,000 sqm factory in Oxford • BS EN ISO9001 since 1996

  5. Our History – 2 decades In the early 1990s Oxford instruments Synchrotron Group, which had been manufacturing Superconducting Compact Synchrotrons, began to supply beamline components to many of the then new 3rd generation light sources. In January 2001 Oxford Instruments sold the Group to Danfysik A/S. In March 2002, Oxford Danfysik moved into a new factory, which had been completely refurbished specifically to suit our synchrotron beamline business. In October 2007, FMB Berlin acquired Oxford Danfysik, renaming the company to FMB Oxford. The combined business has the largest installed base and the greatest range of products of any supplier in the synchrotron community.

  6. Ferry Mills Units 1, 2 and 3 at Osney Mead, Oxford

  7. Optical Design Design Capabilities 3D Modelling FEA Software design

  8. Vacuum Testing Manufacturing Facilities Clean Room Assembly UHV Cleaning Motion Testing

  9. Factory

  10. 11 Beamlines 2007-2012 (+ 2 in build)

  11. FMB-O Market Presence >US$175M Installed Base

  12. Detectors and diagnostics • Capabilities and installed base • Detectors and diagnostics • Electronics • New items

  13. Detectors and diagnostics overview What falls under my remit? Detectors: provide data about the sample Diagnostics: provide data about the beam

  14. Detectors and diagnostics range The FMB Oxford range can be used to measure or manipulate several experimental parameters: • Beam flux measurement • Beam energy measurement and filtering • Beam position • Beam intensity • Sample manipulation

  15. Flux measurement • Avalanche Photo Diodes • Scintillation detectors

  16. Flux measurement – transmissive Transmissive APDs can be used to measure flux pre-sample: • Detector active area: 10mm x 10mm • Detector thickness: 110μm or 200μm • Maximum count rate: approximately 60MHz with dead time correction • Gain: 200x at 370V bias Associated APD ACE electronics specifications: • Energy resolution: 20% to 35% at 25 keV • Pulse pair resolution: 5.6ns

  17. Flux measurement – end stop • Depending on the count rate or gain requested, either APDs and scintillation detectors can be used. Vacuum adaptors are available for both. • Detector active area: 5mm x 5mm for APD; 8mm or 20mm diameter window for scintillation detectors • Available scintillator crystals: NaI, YAP, LaBr3 and LaCl3 • Maximum count rate: approximately 5.5MHz with dead time correction • Wide area detector heads available (50mm x 108mm) • FMB Oxford scintillators designed to work with C400 device from Pyramid – associated specifications: • Pulse pair resolution: <10ns

  18. Energy measurement • Ion chambers • Beam position ion chamber • IC spec

  19. Energy measurement – ion chambers • Used to assess relative beam intensity before and after the sample. A variety of sizes are available to suit your application and spacing: • IC PLUS ion chambers – 10, 50, 150 and 300mm long electrodes • Micro ion chamber – 9mm long electrodes in 12mm long case (not shown – compares against 24mm long case for 10mm IC PLUS) • Beam position ion chamber – 50mm split electrodes, providing beam position data relative to the centre line of the ion chamber

  20. Energy measurement – IC SPEC • Specifically designed for high precision x-ray intensity measurements at synchrotrons. Particularly appropriate as a precision intensity monitor and for transmission absorption measurements (such as EXAFS or XANES). • 300mm long electrodes • Built to very high vacuum standards (10-6) to avoid gas contamination and ensure consistency of response • Large operating range of 4-50 keV • Easy vacuum interfaces through flanges • Signal to noise in order of 105 • Has been installed and extensively tested on beamline BM29 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

  21. Energy measurement – IC SPEC • K-edge absorption spectrum taken from BM29 • 15μm thick Rhodium foil under 30keV beam • Non-focussing Si[1,1,1] monochromator detuned to 40% FWHM • 1010 photons per second with a 0.5mm x 8mm spot • Background subtracted fine structure data weighted by k3 • Data extends as far as 28 Å-1 • Minimal discernible noiseeven with k3 weighting • No spectra from higher order monochromator reflections due to normalisation of chambers

  22. Energy filtering • Bent crystal Laue analysers

  23. Energy filtering – BCLAs • Narrow band pass filter for targeting required post-sample wavelengths • Typical beam input of <100μm x 1mm • Logarithmically shaped crystals to deflect required energy bands towards output • Soller slits to interrupt unwanted energy bands (scattering and unwanted fluorescence lines) • Each BCLA is tuned to a specific input energy, from 5.3 keV to 22 keV • Typical band pass is 10-100 keV • Easily manipulated and compatible with a wide variety of detectors • Licensed exclusively to FMB Oxford

  24. Beam position measurement • Quadrant photodiode BPMs (HV and UHV) • Wide BPMs

  25. Beam position measurement – QBPMs • High Vacuum or Ultra High Vacuum versions available, depending on beam • Positional resolution of 1-2μm possible • UHV version suitable for use in monochromatic beam • Wide version available for use with bending magnet beamlines • Can be provided with motorised diode movement • Licensed in 2003 from the US DOE (ANL/APS)

  26. Beam intensity measurement • Intensity monitors • Profile monitors • Intensity polarisation monitors

  27. Beam intensity measurement • 3 different sets of devices developed for ANKA Nano Beamline, installed in 2009 • Beam intensity monitor – foil scattering monitored using photodiodes to compare relative intensity along beam • Beam profile monitor – beam mask with hole which is gradually scanned across the beam, providing intensity profile with 2μm resolution • Beam intensity polarisation monitor – foil angled in 2 planes across the beam and monitored, providing information on beam polarisation

  28. Sample manipulation • Hot air gas blowers

  29. Sample manipulation – hot air gas blowers • 8mm and 5mm diameter nozzle hot air gas blowers for crystallography • Ultimate achievable temperature of 1000 °C • Precision of ± 1°C • Dedicated PC control software

  30. Electronics • Capabilities and installed base • Detectors and diagnostics • Electronics • New items

  31. Electronics • C-series • I-series

  32. Electronics – C series • C400: 4 channel discriminator • Speed: 150MHz • Pulse pair resolution: 10ns • Discriminator limits: -5V to +5V • Discriminator resolution: 16 bit • Trigger distributed to allow daisy chaining of multiple units • Optional +ve and –ve HV sources can be added to bias the detector • CP10-A: pre-amplifier • Speed: 50MHz • CP10-B: pre-amplifier • Speed: 500MHz

  33. Electronics – I series • I-V integrator devices, individually optimised for performance with common equipment: IC101 • 1 channel integrator optimised for ion chambers • Dynamic range: 1pA – 200μA • Optional HV sources up to +/-3kV can be added to provide chamber bias I200 • 2 channel integrator optimised for DCM control • Dynamic range: 0.1pA – 100μA • Optional servo feedback control can be added to provide PID input to DCM

  34. Electronics – I series I400 • 4 channel integrator optimised for blade BPMs • Dynamic range: 0.1pA – 100μA • Biased inputs up to +/- 400V I404 • 4 channel integrator optimised for quadrant photodiode BPMs • Dynamic range: 1pA – 1mA • Quadrant position readout and output

  35. New items • Capabilities and installed base • Detectors and diagnostics • Electronics • New items

  36. New items • NanoBPM • F460 • MAC detector

  37. NanoBPM • The NanoBPM is a transparent beam position and imaging monitor capable of nanometre resolution

  38. NanoBPM The NanoBPM technology was developed and patented by Roelof van Silfhout at the University of Manchester, UK The technology has been exclusively licensed to FMB Oxford The technology uses an in-situ scattering foil and pinhole camera to magnify the beam cross section onto a CMOS camera The NanoBPM allows in-situ, high resolution characterisation of beam position and shape

  39. NanoBPM The system provides concurrent intensity and positional data from the beam, transparently Its capability has been verified experimentally on beamlines ID6, ID32 and BM26A at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and I22 at Diamond Light Source The camera is a 1286 x 1030 array of pixels 7μm x 7μm each. The image provided was taken close to the sample on BM26A and demonstrates the focal spot of the beam

  40. NanoBPM This image demonstrates the resolution of the NanoBPM in comparison with a quadrant ion chamber on ID6. The readings were taken simultaneously during a series of steps of 200nm The NanoBPM system comes ready with its own dedicated electronics and processor. The outputs provide servo feedback control via 4x 16 bit DAC outputs It comes with a dedicated Windows application. Dedicated drivers and GUIs for EPICS, SPEC and LabVIEW have also been developed

  41. NanoBPM Approximate dimensions of the system: 12” tall; 4” horizontal flange; 2.5” vertical flange Potential to monitor polychromatic beams close to the source using Beryllium or Diamond foils

  42. F460 • The F460 is a fast, low current I-V convertor with 4 fully independent channels

  43. F460 The F460 was developed in response to customer feedback and requests for increased speed and functionality. It is suitable for fast current and charge measurement, making it ideal for quadrant photodiode readouts, beam position monitors and segmented Faraday cups

  44. F460 • Key technical features • Channels: 4 fully independent with independent gain and offset • Dynamic range: 0.1nA to 1mA (bipolar), 4 independently selectable measurement ranges per channel • Accuracy: +/- 0.1% of full scale, maintained by integrated calibration sources • Digitisation: 16 bit per measurement range • Sampling speed: 1Hz – 250kHz • Filtering: box car averaging up to 250000 samples • Buffering: 5000 contiguous samples at any sample rate • External triggering: start, pause and stop acquisition

  45. F460 • Options: • PID servo feedback controller • Up to +/- 3kHV auxiliary HV supply Communications • Fibre optic, RS232/RS485 and Ethernet interfaces The EPICs interface is currently under development by Jeff Keister and group, so a unit is available for assessment

  46. MAC detector • The MAC detector is a multi analyser channel detector, suitable for fast scanning of samples

  47. MAC detector We have developed a design for a MAC detector. The proposed design was developed at the request of a customer at LNLS Campinas in Brazil The proposed design uses 8 analyser channels and high precision goniometers for high resolution diffraction

  48. MAC detector The analyser arrangement is well proven and is based upon a design installed on I11 at Diamond Light Source The analyser design was developed by Tim Hill, recently of FMB Oxford The number of channels can be altered and a range of crystal sizes and types are available The design uses the current FMB Oxford scintillators and C400 electronics MAC arms on 2Θ circle; each with Si[111] analysing crystals (x9) mounted on α and detectors (x9) on 2α rotary table

  49. Thanks! • Thank you for your attention • I’m here for the remainder of today and tomorrow