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Chapter 21: Civil Rights. In the name of love. Taking on segregation: section one. THE SEGRAGATION SYSTEM 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson* Jim Crow Laws—separate schools, street cars, waiting rooms, railroad coaches, elevators, drinking fountains, witness stands, and restrooms

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Chapter 21: Civil Rights

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    1. Chapter 21: Civil Rights In the name of love

    2. Taking on segregation: section one THE SEGRAGATION SYSTEM • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson* • Jim Crow Laws—separate schools, street cars, waiting rooms, railroad coaches, elevators, drinking fountains, witness stands, and restrooms • Southern African Americans move to the North*

    3. TAKING ON SEGREGATION CHALLENGING SEGREGATION IN COURT • To desegregate, the NAACP leads the way • Major challenge: the separation of schools • Thurgood Marshall*

    4. Taking on segregation • Brown vs. Board of Education* • “Separate but equal” is illegal REACTION TO THE BROWN DECISION • Within a year, more than 500 schools have to desegregate • KKK reappears and White Citizens Councils boycott businesses • 1955 ruling (Brown II)*

    5. TAKING ON SEGREGATION • “Little Rock Nine”* • Eisenhower puts National guard under control and sends paratroopers to help students attend class • Still harassed • End of year—school is shut down by Governor

    6. TAKING ON SEGREGATION THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT • December 1st, 1955—Rosa Parks* takes a stand • Parks is arrested—boycott of buses suggested • Martin Luther King Jr.*

    7. TAKING ON SEGREGATION • For 381 days, citizen refused to ride the busses—car pools and walking instead • 1956—Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE SCLC • King calls his nonviolent resistance “soul force”—influenced by the Bible, Thoreau, Randolph, and Ghandi • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)* • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)*

    8. THE MOVEMENT SPREADS THE MOVEMENT SPREADS • CORE stages the first sit-in* • Store managers called the police, raised the price of food, and removed counter seats • Students endured arrests, beatings, suspensions from college, tear gas, and fire hoses

    9. The triumphs of a crusade: section two RIDING FOR FREEDOM • CORE and SNCC wants to test Supreme Court decision to ban segregation on interstate bus seating and terminals • Freedom riders* • Violence occurs with fire bombs and beatings • Papers expose violence

    10. The triumphs of a crusade STANDING FIRM • James Meredith* • Gov. Ross Barnett refuses to let him register • Federal marshals escort him to registration • Gov. inspires a riot—two deaths, 200 arrests, and 15 hours to put down • Fed. officials go with him to class

    11. THE TRIUMPHS OF A CRUSADE • Birmingham, Alabama known for segregation and racial violence • King plans to desegregate the city with demonstrations—arrested • Used children to test conscience of the city • May 2nd and May 3rd occurrences* • TV cameras capture all

    12. The triumphs of a crusade • Kennedy orders Gov. George Wallace to desegregate Univ. of Alabama and a civil rights bill MARCHING TO WASHINGTON • March to Washington proposed for the following reason* • August 28, 1963—250,000 march to Washington D.C.; 75,000 are white • Speakers present at Lincoln Memorial—including Dr. King (“I Have a Dream”)

    13. Triumphs of a crusade • Johnson pledges to get Kennedy’s work passed Civil Rights Act of 1964* FIGHTING FOR VOTING RIGHTS • Freedom Summer* • College students were trained in nonviolent resistance • Resulted in racial beatings, murders, and burnings of businesses, homes, and churches • Voting Rights Act of 1965*

    14. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES IN THE MOVEMENT: Section three AFRICAN AMERICANS SEEK GREATER EQUALITY • Attention for the movement goes from the South to the North • De facto and de jure segregation* • “White flight” happens during WWII with African Americans migrating North* • Move to suburbs causes decaying city slums, deteriorated neighborhoods, and high unemploy. • Terrible treatment by white police • Dr. King and Chicago

    15. Challenges and changes in the movement • Over 100 race riots take place in cities (LA, Detroit, NY) over lack of opportunity with jobs, housing, and education NEW LEADERS VOICE DISCONTENT • Malcolm X* • Nation of Islam*

    16. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES IN THE MOVEMENT • Preached that whites were the cause of the black condition • Should create separate societies; advocates self-defense • Splits with Nation of Islam—fears trouble • Visits holy city of Mecca and views change* • Assassinated at age of 39

    17. Challenges and changes in the movement • SNCC and CORE become more militant—due to disappointment of the ineffectiveness of the nonviolent mvmnt. • Black Power* • Dr. King did not like the phrase because he believed it would antagonize whites

    18. Challenges and changes to the movement • SNCC stops recruiting whites • Black Panthers* • Believed they should be exempt from military service because of an unfair number serving in Vietnam • Black Panther attire* • Had shootouts with the police; FBI investigations • Helped ghettos with daycare centers, free breakfast programs, free medical clinics, and assistance to the homeless

    19. Challenges and changes in the movement 1968—A TURNING POINT • Dr. King objected to the Black Power movement* • James Earl Ray assassinates King on April 4, 1968 • Robert Kennedy’s response to King’s death • Riots in over 100 cities*

    20. Challenges and changes to the movement • June 1968—Robert Kennedy assassinated LEGACY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT • Kerner Commission* • Civil Rights Act of 1968* • Movement ends de jure segregation • Est. pride in racial identities • More African Americans are registered to vote; leads to more officials being elected • Numbers increase of those who finish high school and college