Unit 2: Conflict and Cooperation (Background information) Europe and Russia:Shaped by History
Conflict and Cooperation • Conflict and cooperation among people and nations is caused by government ideas (politics) and cultural reasons (ethnicity, background, language, religion). • We are going to examine several of these issues from world wars (politics) to country divisions (cultural reasons).
Nationalism leads to War • Nationalism (pride in your country) spread throughout Europe in the 1900’s
World War I • Europeans feared their own nations and were terrified of others taking their territory • Alliances (agreements) were formed between nations for protection
World War I • The alliances went to war in 1914; most nations is Europe participated • United States joined the war in 1917 aiding Great Britain, France, and Russia • This alliance defeated Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey • World War I saw 9 million soldiers and over 13 million non-soldiers die
What’s the difference? Map before wwi Map after WWi
World War II • After WWI, nationalism was still alive • Alliances formed again; their goal: increase their wealth through military dominance
World War II • The Axis Powers captured most of Europe, parts of China, and the South Pacific • 50 nations around the world soon got involved • The Allies won in 1945 • WWII was the most destructive war ever fought (millions died, the most money on any war was spent)
Two Paths Emerge in Europe • After WWII, the U.S. and the Soviet Union became SUPERPOWERS of the world • Europe divided itself into two regions, Eastern and Western • Western Europe • allied themselves with the U.S. • grew together as a region (cooperated) • Eastern Europe: • Followed the Soviet Union • Economies failed and people’s freedoms were taken away
Check for Understanding • During both world wars, how did nations from around the world demonstrate COOPERATION? • During both world wars, how did nations from around the world demonstrate CONFLICT? • Using your map comparison of Europe before and after World War I, how did borders change? Were these changes cultural or political? • How did World War II define the territories of Western and Eastern Europe?
Brain Pop • We are going to view two Brain Pop videos on World War I and World War II. • Complete your Brain Pop guided questions and note taking guides as we watch the videos. • Be prepared to share your responses and notes.
Cultural Conflict and Cooperation • Historically, parts of Europe were culturally diverse (many cultures in one region) • Both peace and violence occurred because of this diversity. • We are going to study the history of Czechoslovakia, which is now two countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the violent destruction of Yugoslavia.
Czechoslovakia CZECH culture SLOVAK culture
Czechs and Slovaks in Czechoslovakia • Czechoslovakia had 2 main ethnic groups: Czechs and Slovaks
Czechoslovakia is taken over • Communists took over the country after WWII • For over 20 years, protests against communism broke out as protesters wanted democracy to be their form of government • Protests led to the end of communism.
Disagreement after Communism • After communism fell in Czechoslovakia, the two ethnic groups (Czechs and Slovaks) disagreed on how to run the democratic country • The conflict ended peacefully as each ethnic group formed new countries: • Czechs formed the Czech Republic • Slovaks formed Slovakia
Check for Understanding • How did both the Czechs and Slovaks cooperate after communism took over their homeland? • How did the end of communism bring conflict between the two ethnic groups? • Was their resolution simply conflict, or a combination of both conflict and cooperation? Explain your choice.
Yugoslavia: A Violent Division • Cultural differences in Yugoslavia led to a violent breakup of the country. • How does this compare to that of Czechoslovakia?
Yugoslavia’s Formation • The country was formed in 1918 and consisted of many cultural groups. • Since its existence, these groups disagreed about how the Yugoslavian government should be run. • The country was divided into smaller units called republics; each republic was dominated by one cultural/ethnic group. • Serbia was the largest republic, led by the Serbs; this republic had the most power and ran the national government. • Other ethnic groups did not agree with the Serbs and their control and resented their power; this led to ethnic conflicts among the people
Yugoslavia goes Communist • Josip Broz Tito became the head of the government and made Yugoslavia communist. • Tito had good international relationships with both communist and non-communist countries. • Under Tito, Yugoslavia was stable and conflict between its people were almost nonexistent because of Yugoslavia’s success as a country. • Nationalism took over Yugoslavia: people believed they were Yugoslavians!!!
Tito’s Death • Tito died in 1980 and the government fell apart as leaders from every ethnic group struggled for power. • Ethnic groups reformed as separate identities; nationalism died in Yugoslavia
The Break Up of Yugoslavia • Yugoslavia became unstable in the 1980’s • Republics wanted to govern themselves, which ultimately led to civil wars breaking out throughout the country. • Wars led to the development and independence of newly formed countries: • Slovenia • Croatia • Bosnia& Herzegovnia • Serbia & Montenegro • Macedonia