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History of Biomedical Engineering. The objective of this lecture is to provide: An overview of the history of Biomedical Engineering Some of the critical inventions/discoveries that has shaped the modern medicine The profession that Biomedical Engineering has become today. Chronology.

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history of biomedical engineering
History of Biomedical Engineering
  • The objective of this lecture is to provide:
    • An overview of the history of Biomedical Engineering
    • Some of the critical inventions/discoveries that has shaped the modern medicine
    • The profession that Biomedical Engineering has become today

CHEE 340

chronology
Chronology
  • Prior to the 1900’s:
    • Medicine has little to offer the common individual
    • At the turn of the 20th century, advances in almost all areas of science enabled medical researchers to make giant strides forward
  • Early 1900’s:
    • First advances in medical diagnostics and imaging
    • In 1896 Roentgen developed X-ray imaging
      • initially used for the diagnosis of bone fractures
      • technology has evolved today to visual all organ systems (with the use of radio-opaque materials)

CHEE 340

roentgen s x rays
Roentgen’s X-Rays
  • Radiograph of the hand of Albert von Kolliker, made at the conclusion of Roentgen's lecture and demonstration at the Wurzburg Physical-Medical Society on 23 January 1896
  • Later, Roentgen went on to win the first Nobel Prize in 1901 for his invention

CHEE 340

chronology1
Chronology
  • Early 1900’s:
    • In 1906 Einthoven developed the electrocardiogram (ECG)
      • pattern of electrical charges in the heart during contraction
      • diagnostic tool that is still used today

CHEE 340

einthoven s ecg
Einthoven’s ECG
  • Capillary galvanoscope used by Einthoven (slightly different configuration). Mercury droplet in the horizontal tube moves under the influence of an electric field applied to the two electrodes
  • Familiar trace of the modern ECG used to diagnosis various heart problems and conditions
  • Later, Einthoven went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1924 for his invention

CHEE 340

chronology2
Chronology
  • 1920’s:
    • Saw the development of refrigeration which lead to the process of storing blood
    • In 1929 Drinkler invented the first mechanical respirator (a.k.a. “iron lung”)

CHEE 340

drinkler s respirator iron lung
Drinkler’s Respirator (“Iron Lung”)
  • First widely used mechanical device capable of artificial respiration to treat victims of respiratory paralysis. The patient’s entire body, excluding the head, was placed in a sealed tank. Tank pressure was increased and decreased to move air into and out of the lungs to simulate normal respiration.

CHEE 340

chronology3
Chronology
  • 1930’s:
    • Development of the heart-lung machine (Gibson circa 1935)
      • artificial device for shunting blood flow outside of the patient by bypass the heart and lungs to allowing for more effective heart surgery (i.e. heart could be stopped)
    • Development of the electron microscope (Ruska circa 1931)
      • providing the first real ability to visualize sub-cellular structures

CHEE 340

chronology4
Chronology
  • 1940’s and 1950’s:
    • Saw major developments in cardiovascular medicine
    • Development of angiography (Cournand 1941)
      • First local visualization of arteries and veins using a catheter and radio-opaque dyes in a living subject
    • First use of the artificial tissue replacements (DeBakey 1954)
      • synthetic artery grafts (Dacron polyester)
    • Invention of the pacemaker (Zoll 1955)
      • implantable assist device to recreate the natural rhythm of the heart to initiate natural contractions

CHEE 340

what is biomedical engineering
What is Biomedical Engineering?
  • Many different titles have been used to for engineers working in the medical/biological industry:
    • Biomedical Engineering
    • Biological Engineering
    • Clinical Engineering
    • Bioengineering

CHEE 340

bioengineering
Bioengineering
  • Broad research-related field spanning biotechnology and genetics related to all biological fields
    • Food and Agriculture (Biological Engineering)
    • Medical and diagnostic tests
    • Development of vaccines, enzymes, antibody production
    • Environmental (e.g. bioremediation)
    • Basic sciences (e.g. protein interactions with surfaces)

CHEE 340

biomedical engineering
Biomedical Engineering
  • Application of engineering principles to understand, modify or control human biological systems
    • Detection and monitoring of physiological signals
    • Therapeutics and rehabilitation devices/procedures
    • Devices for replacement/augmentation of bodily functions
    • Medical imaging
  • When principles are applied in a hospital setting with the direct application to patient care, this is referred as to the profession of Clinical Engineering

CHEE 340

professional status
Professional Status
  • Professional licensing (P.Eng.) of Biomedical Engineers in Canada falls under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB)
  • Similarly, in the States professional licensing for Biomedical Engineers falls under the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)

CHEE 340

biomedical engineering societies
Biomedical Engineering Societies
  • Engineering and Medical Biological Society (EMBS)
    • Offshoot of the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineering (IEEE)
    • International society with over 8,000 members world-wide
    • Hold annual conferences
  • International Federation of Medical and Biomedical Engineering (IFMBS)
    • International federation of various Biomedical Engineering societies with over 5,000 members world-wide
    • Hold annual conferences and sponsor their own journal
    • Official consultant to the United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO)

CHEE 340

academic research societies
Academic Research Societies
  • Numerous other academic research societies also include Biomedical Engineering:
    • Society for Biomaterials
    • Society for Biomechanics
    • Orthopaedic Research Society
    • Tissue Engineering Society International
    • Heart and Stroke Foundation
    • Arthritis Society
    • International Cartilage Research Society
    • and many, many, more…

CHEE 340

summary
Summary
  • Biomedical Engineering is an inter-/multi-disciplinary field that applies engineering principles to medicine with the aim of providing better heath care
  • Biomedical Engineering has its own professional status and is regulated a profession

CHEE 340

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