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History of Biomedical Engineering

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  1. History of Biomedical Engineering • The objective of this lecture is to provide: • An overview of the history of Biomedical Engineering • Some of the critical inventions/discoveries that has shaped the modern medicine • The profession that Biomedical Engineering has become today CHEE 340

  2. Chronology • Prior to the 1900’s: • Medicine has little to offer the common individual • At the turn of the 20th century, advances in almost all areas of science enabled medical researchers to make giant strides forward • Early 1900’s: • First advances in medical diagnostics and imaging • In 1896 Roentgen developed X-ray imaging • initially used for the diagnosis of bone fractures • technology has evolved today to visual all organ systems (with the use of radio-opaque materials) CHEE 340

  3. Roentgen’s X-Rays • Radiograph of the hand of Albert von Kolliker, made at the conclusion of Roentgen's lecture and demonstration at the Wurzburg Physical-Medical Society on 23 January 1896 • Later, Roentgen went on to win the first Nobel Prize in 1901 for his invention CHEE 340

  4. Chronology • Early 1900’s: • In 1906 Einthoven developed the electrocardiogram (ECG) • pattern of electrical charges in the heart during contraction • diagnostic tool that is still used today CHEE 340

  5. Einthoven’s ECG • Capillary galvanoscope used by Einthoven (slightly different configuration). Mercury droplet in the horizontal tube moves under the influence of an electric field applied to the two electrodes • Familiar trace of the modern ECG used to diagnosis various heart problems and conditions • Later, Einthoven went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1924 for his invention CHEE 340

  6. Chronology • 1920’s: • Saw the development of refrigeration which lead to the process of storing blood • In 1929 Drinkler invented the first mechanical respirator (a.k.a. “iron lung”) CHEE 340

  7. Drinkler’s Respirator (“Iron Lung”) • First widely used mechanical device capable of artificial respiration to treat victims of respiratory paralysis. The patient’s entire body, excluding the head, was placed in a sealed tank. Tank pressure was increased and decreased to move air into and out of the lungs to simulate normal respiration. CHEE 340

  8. Chronology • 1930’s: • Development of the heart-lung machine (Gibson circa 1935) • artificial device for shunting blood flow outside of the patient by bypass the heart and lungs to allowing for more effective heart surgery (i.e. heart could be stopped) • Development of the electron microscope (Ruska circa 1931) • providing the first real ability to visualize sub-cellular structures CHEE 340

  9. Chronology • 1940’s and 1950’s: • Saw major developments in cardiovascular medicine • Development of angiography (Cournand 1941) • First local visualization of arteries and veins using a catheter and radio-opaque dyes in a living subject • First use of the artificial tissue replacements (DeBakey 1954) • synthetic artery grafts (Dacron polyester) • Invention of the pacemaker (Zoll 1955) • implantable assist device to recreate the natural rhythm of the heart to initiate natural contractions CHEE 340

  10. What is Biomedical Engineering? • Many different titles have been used to for engineers working in the medical/biological industry: • Biomedical Engineering • Biological Engineering • Clinical Engineering • Bioengineering CHEE 340

  11. Bioengineering • Broad research-related field spanning biotechnology and genetics related to all biological fields • Food and Agriculture (Biological Engineering) • Medical and diagnostic tests • Development of vaccines, enzymes, antibody production • Environmental (e.g. bioremediation) • Basic sciences (e.g. protein interactions with surfaces) CHEE 340

  12. Biomedical Engineering • Application of engineering principles to understand, modify or control human biological systems • Detection and monitoring of physiological signals • Therapeutics and rehabilitation devices/procedures • Devices for replacement/augmentation of bodily functions • Medical imaging • When principles are applied in a hospital setting with the direct application to patient care, this is referred as to the profession of Clinical Engineering CHEE 340

  13. Professional Status • Professional licensing (P.Eng.) of Biomedical Engineers in Canada falls under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB) • Similarly, in the States professional licensing for Biomedical Engineers falls under the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) CHEE 340

  14. Biomedical Engineering Societies • Engineering and Medical Biological Society (EMBS) • Offshoot of the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineering (IEEE) • International society with over 8,000 members world-wide • Hold annual conferences • International Federation of Medical and Biomedical Engineering (IFMBS) • International federation of various Biomedical Engineering societies with over 5,000 members world-wide • Hold annual conferences and sponsor their own journal • Official consultant to the United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) CHEE 340

  15. Academic Research Societies • Numerous other academic research societies also include Biomedical Engineering: • Society for Biomaterials • Society for Biomechanics • Orthopaedic Research Society • Tissue Engineering Society International • Heart and Stroke Foundation • Arthritis Society • International Cartilage Research Society • and many, many, more… CHEE 340

  16. Summary • Biomedical Engineering is an inter-/multi-disciplinary field that applies engineering principles to medicine with the aim of providing better heath care • Biomedical Engineering has its own professional status and is regulated a profession CHEE 340