world war i n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CHAPTER 16 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
CHAPTER 16

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 83

CHAPTER 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 123 Views
  • Uploaded on

WORLD WAR I. CHAPTER 16. Europe Before World War I. THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM. TRIPLE ENTENTE GREAT BRITAIN FRANCE RUSSIA THIS BEGAN IN 1894 WITH FRANCE AND RUSSIA. GREAT BRITAIN JOINED IN 1907 TO COMPLETE THE ALLIANCE. TRIPLE ALLIANCE GERMANY AUSTRIA-HUNGARY ITALY

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

CHAPTER 16


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the alliance system
THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM
  • TRIPLE ENTENTE
  • GREAT BRITAIN
  • FRANCE
  • RUSSIA
  • THIS BEGAN IN 1894 WITH FRANCE AND RUSSIA.
  • GREAT BRITAIN JOINED IN 1907 TO COMPLETE THE ALLIANCE.
slide4

TRIPLE ALLIANCE

  • GERMANY
  • AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
  • ITALY
  • THIS ALLIANCE BEGAN IN 1879 WITH GERMANY AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.
  • IT WAS COMPLETED IN 1882 WHEN ITALY JOINED.
the following alliances developed as the war started or shortly afterwards
The following alliances developed as the war started or shortly afterwards.
  • THE ALLIES

-GREAT BRITAIN

-FRANCE

-RUSSIA

-JAPAN

-ITALY (1915)

-UNITED STATES (1917)

slide6

CENTRAL POWERS

-GERMANY

-AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

-OTTOMAN EMPIRE

-BULGARIA

four major causes of wwi
FOUR MAJOR CAUSES OF WWI
  • NATIONALISM
  • IMPERIALISM
  • MILITARISM
  • SYSTEM OF ENTANGLING ALLIANCES
nationalism
NATIONALISM
  • A DEEP LOVE OR PRIDE IN ONE’S COUNTRY
  • CAN SERVE AS A UNIFYING FORCE

-Germany competed with Great Britain for industrial dominance.

-France lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in the Franco-Prussian war.

-Austria-Hungary and Russia (Balkans)

imperialism
IMPERIALISM
  • WHEN A STRONGER NATION TAKES CONTROL OF A SMALLER NATION ECONOMICALLY, SOCIALLY, AND POLITICALLY.
  • CREATED MISTRUST BETWEEN EUROPEAN NATIONS (AFRICA / ASIA)
militarism
MILITARISM
  • THIS IS THE GLORIFICATION OF WAR AND KEEPING AN ARMY READY FOR WAR. (GERMANY / PRUSSIA)
  • WHAT WAS THE REST OF EUROPE’S REACTION?
entangling alliances
ENTANGLING ALLIANCES
  • ORIGINALLY ESTABLISHED TO KEEP PEACE
  • IN THE END IT CREATED WAR
otto von bismarck1
OTTO VON BISMARCK
  • GERMAN CHANCELLOR (OLD BLOOD AND IRON)
  • SAW FRANCE AS THE GREATEST THREAT TO PEACE AND WORKED TO ISOLATE FRANCE FROM POTENTIAL ALLIES
kaiser wilhelm ii1
KAISER WILHELM II
  • IN 1888, HE BECOMES GERMANY’S NEW RULER.
  • IN 1890, FORCES BISMARCK TO RESIGN
  • LETS TREATY WITH RUSSIA LAPSE
  • RUSSIA AND FRANCE FORM A DEFENSIVE MILITARY ALLIANCE
  • BISMARCK’S GREATEST FEAR NOW REALIZED (TWO FRONT WAR)
the powder keg of europe
THE “POWDER KEG OF EUROPE”
  • OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN DECLINE
  • NEW NATIONS FORMING
  • RUSSIA AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
  • 1908, AUSTRIA ANNEXES BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
the spark
“THE SPARK”
  • THE ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND WIFE SOPHIE
  • 19 YEAR OLD SERBIAN NATIONALIST, GAVRILO PRINCIP / “BLACK HAND”
  • THIS EVENT OCCURRED ON JUNE 28, 1914, AND IS CONSIDERED THE OFFICIAL START OF WWI (THE GREAT WAR)
effects of the alliance system
EFFECTS OF THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM
  • AUSTRIA DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA ONE MONTH LATER (JULY 28, 1914).
  • AUGUST 1, 1914 – GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA.
  • AUGUST 3, 1914 – GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON FRANCE.
  • AUGUST 4, 1914 – GREAT BRITAIN DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY AFTER THE INVASION OF BELGIUM
the schlieffen plan 1905
“THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN” 1905
  • GERMANY’S PLAN FOR FIGHTING WWI
  • TWO PART PLAN

1. GERMANY WOULD STRIKE QUICK TO THE WEST AGAINST FRANCE.

2. AFTER THE DEFEAT OF FRANCE, GERMANY WOULD TURN EAST AND ATTACK RUSSIA.

the western front
“THE WESTERN FRONT”
  • THE FIGHTING IN FRANCE
  • THE FIRST BATTLE OF THE MARNE

-FIRST MAJOR BATTLE

-PROBABLY THE MOST IMPORTANT BATTLE OF THE WAR

-FRANCE WON AND LEFT THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN IN RUINS

  • TRENCH WARFARE / “NO MAN’S LAND”
new inventions of warfare
NEW INVENTIONS OF WARFARE
  • POISON GAS
  • MACHINE GUN
  • TANK
  • AIRPLANE
  • SUBMARINE / U-BOAT
the eastern front
“THE EASTERN FRONT”
  • ALONG THE GERMAN-RUSSIAN BORDER
  • RUSSIA

-LACK OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

-RUSSIAN ARMY SUFFERED AS A RESULT (SUPPLIES)

-GREATEST ASSET WAS ITS PEOPLE

the gallipoli campaign
THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN
  • BRING AN END TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
  • SECURE THE DARDANELLES STRAIT
  • ESTABLISH A SUPPLY LINE TO RUSSIA
  • AN OVERALL FAILURE
  • COST 250,000 LIVES
pacific theater
PACIFIC THEATER
  • JAPAN
  • BEGINS TO OVERRUN GERMAN OUTPOSTS IN CHINA
  • CAPTURES GERMAN PACIFIC ISLAND COLONIES
the u s enters wwi
THE U.S. ENTERS WWI
  • THE MAIN REASON FOR U.S. ENTRY WAS THE USE OF UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE AGAIN!

-MAY 7, 1915 –LUSITANIA (BRITISH)

-1916, SUSSEX (FRENCH), (PLEDGE)

-EARLY 1917, GERMANY BEGINS TO USE UNSTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE AGAIN AND SANK SOME U.S. MERCHANT SHIPS.

the zimmerman note
“THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE”
  • THIS WAS A 2nd REASON FOR U.S. ENTRY INTO WWI.
  • GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER, ZIMMERMAN, TO THE GERMAN AMBASSADOR IN MEXICO
  • PERSUADE MEXICO TO DECLARE WAR ON THE U.S.
slide51

GERMANY WOULD HELP MEXICO REGAIN THE LAND LOST TO THE U.S. IN THE MEXICAN WAR.

  • MESSAGE NEVER REACHED MEXICO
  • WHY DID AMERICANS SIDE WITH THE ALLIES? FELT A BOND WITH ENGLAND, COMMON ANCESTRY AND LANGUAGE, SIMILAR DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
woodrow wilson asks congress to declare war
WOODROW WILSON ASKS CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR
slide53

APRIL 2, 1917, PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON ASKED CONGRESS FOR A DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST GERMANY.

  • WWI WARFARE WAS KNOWN AS “TOTAL WAR”
  • RATIONING / RATION STAMPS

-FOOD, CLOTHING, GAS

women in the workforce
WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE
  • AS A RESULT OF THE EFFORT OF WOMEN DURING WWI, THE CONCEPT ABOUT WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE WAS CHANGED FOREVER.
russia withdraws from wwi
RUSSIA WITHDRAWS FROM WWI
  • CZAR NICHOLAS II (ROMANOV)

-GOVERNMENT COLLAPSING

-REVOLUTION STIRRING

-ARMY REFUSING TO FIGHT

  • NOV. 1917, V.I. LENIN SEIZES POWER & OFFERS GERMANY A TRUCE.
  • MARCH 1918, RUSSIA AND GERMANY SIGN TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK
slide66

GERMANY CAN NOW FOCUS ALL OF ITS TROOPS ON THE WESTERN FRONT.

  • TROOPS ARE EXHAUSTED
  • SUPPLIES VIRTUALLY GONE
allied forces
ALLIED FORCES
  • UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF FRENCH MARSHAL FOCH
  • JULY 1918, SECOND BATTLE OF THE MARNE
  • AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (AEF) LED BY JOHN J. “BLACKJACK” PERSHING (IMPACT ON OUTCOME)
  • BELLEAU WOOD, CHATEAU THIERRY, ARGONNE FOREST
slide70

NOV. 9, 1918, KAISER WILHELM II IS FORCED OUT.

  • NOV. 11, 1918, ARMISTICE SIGNED ENDING WWI
  • NEW GERMAN GOVERNMENT

-WEIMAR REPUBLIC

the paris peace conference the treaty of versailles
THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE/ THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • THE BIG FOUR

-MEN THAT MADE THE MAJORITY OF THE DECISIONS AT THE PEACE CONFERENCE

1. DAVID LLOYD GEORGE – PRIME MINISTER – GREAT BRITAIN – WANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY SOMEWHAT FOR THE WAR

slide75

2. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU – PREMIER OF FRANCE – WANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY HARSHLY FOR THE WAR.

3. VITTORIO ORLANDO – PREMIER OF ITALY – WAS THERE FOR THE LAND.

slide76

4. WOODROW WILSON – PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES – WANTED A JUST AND LASTING PEACE.

  • THESE FOUR MEN WOULD DECIDE THE FATE OF GERMANY.
  • WILSON AND CLEMENCEAU WERE CONSTANTLY AT ODDS OVER HOW TO TREAT GERMANY.
the fourteen points
“THE FOURTEEN POINTS”
  • THIS WAS WILSON’S PLAN FOR THE POSTWAR WORLD.
  • KEY POINTS:

1)PUT AN END TO SECRET TREATIES

2)FREEDOM OF THE SEAS

3)FREE TRADE

4)REDUCTION OF ARMIES & NAVIES

slide79

5)ADJUSTMENT OF COLONIAL CLAIMS

6-13)COLLECTIVELY DEALT WITH SELF-DETERMINATION – THIS ALLOWS PEOPLE TO DECIDE WHAT FORM OF GOVERNMENT THEY WANT TO LIVE UNDER

14 th point the league of nations
14TH POINT – THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  • ACCORDING TO PRESIDENT WILSON, THIS WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT POINT.
  • THIS WOULD BE A GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF NATIONS THAT WOULD PEACEFULLY NEGOTIATE SOLUTIONS TO WORLD CONFLICTS.
the treaty of versailles
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • ON JUNE 28, 1919, THE TREATY WAS SIGNED, OFFICIALLY BRINGING AN END TO WWI
  • A LEAGUE OF NATIONS WAS INCLUDED BUT GERMANY AND RUSSIA WERE DELIBERATELY EXCLUDED .
article 231
ARTICLE 231
  • THIS WAS THE WAR GUILT CLAUSE.
  • IT PLACED SOLE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE WAR ON GERMANY.
  • GERMANY HAD TO PAY $33 BILLION IN REPARATIONS OVER THE NEXT 30 YEARS. ( WAS THIS FAIR? EXPLAIN.)