Cicero An Introduction
His Life • Born on 3rd January 106BC in Arpinum • First of two sons • Educated in philosophy and rhetoric • Military service in 90/89BC • First case in 81BC (Pro Quinctio
His Life • Reputation secured after defence of SextusRoscius in 80BC • More philosophy and oratory training in Athens • Elected quaestor in 75BC • Elected praetor in 66BC (earliest age possible for both)
His Life • His case In Verrem in 70BCmarked him out as a heavyweight defeating Hortensius up til then the leading lawyer in Rome • Elected consul in 63BC • Most famous case was In Catalinam securing him the title pater patriae
His Life • Allied himself with Pompey during the First Triumvirate thus securing Caesar’s eventual enmity • Pardoned by Caesar • Took no part in C’s murder but said Mark Antony should also have been murdered thus securing MA’s enmity
His Death • After the formation of the Second Triumvirate, Mark Antony ensured Cicero’s name was on the proscribed list of public enemies and he was killed en route to Greece • Died on 7 December 43BC
His Works Cicero’s work can broadly be divided into 5 Categories: - Speeches - Poems - Rhetoric - Letters - Philosophy
His Works Of the speeches 58 survive in whole or part Only fragments of his poetry survive, though he had a bad reputation as a poet Cicero wrote De inventione in his youth, De Oratore, Brutus and Orator somewhat later and Partitiones Oratoriae for his son; all works of rhetoric
His Works In the De Divinatione(2.1) Cicero outlines his contribution to Philosophy, which includes the Hortensiuson why to study philosophy, the Academica a system of knowledge , theTusculanaeDisputationes on the pursuit of happiness, as well as De NaturaDeorum, De Divinatione, De Fato, De Re Publica, De Consolatione, De Senectuteand De Officiiswhich speak for themselves
His Works Over 800 of his letters survive giving us an unprecedented insight into his world view and life during one of the most turbulent times in Roman history.
The Text The case against Verres was commissioned by the outraged inhabitants of Sicily who wished to see Verres punished for his extortion of their island. They chose Cicero to be their advocate since he was a novus homo who was perceived to be outside of the ranks of the nobles to whom Verres belonged.
The Text Cicero actually won the case In Verrem after delivering two short speeches: the Divinatio in Q. Caecilium, which sees Cicero defend his right to appear as Verres’ prosecutor and the In Verrem Actio Prima after which Verres fled into voluntary exile. As such the actio secunda, book one of which forms our set text, was never actually delivered in court.
The Text The actioprima “consisted in an exposure of the methods employed to obstruct the prosecution, and a warning to the jurors of the grave consequences to the themselves and the prestige of the Senate which would follow a corrupt verdict of acquittal” R.G.C.Levens(1946) Cicero Verrine V, p.xxxiv
The Text As such we are meant to imagine the actio secunda as the speeches Cicero would have made if Verres had returned after the adjournment. The actio secunda is divided into 5 separate speeches. We will be studying the first of those five.
The Text The first book of the actio secunda is concerned with “Verres’ career up to and including his urban praetorship, and has no bearing on the Sicilian charges except as establishing his character and antecedents” R.G.C.Levens(1946) Cicero Verrine V, p.xxxix
The Text Enjoy . . .