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  1. Investigation By: Francisco Javier Murillo

  2. Define followingterms: • Digital logic • Logic gate • Integrated Circuit • Truth table • Led • Breadboard • Breadboard jumpers

  3. Definitionsfrom internet • Digital Logic: “A mathematical system concerning the two truth values, TRUE and FALSE and the functions AND, OR, NOT. Two-valued logic is one of the cornerstones of logic and is also fundamental in the design of digital electronics and programming languages.” Source:

  4. LogicGate: • “A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit . Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binary conditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels. The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. In most logic gates, the low state is approximately zero volts (0 V), while the high state is approximately five volts positive (+5 V).” • “There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and XNOR.” Source:,,sid9_gci213512,00.html

  5. “The AND gate is so named because, if 0 is called "false" and 1 is called "true," the gate acts in the same way as the logical "and" operator. The following illustration and table show the circuit symbol and logic combinations for an AND gate. (In the symbol, the input terminals are at left and the output terminal is at right.) The output is "true" when both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is (false.)” AND Gate Sourceisthesameadress of theoboveslide

  6. OR Gate • “The OR gate gets its name from the fact that it behaves after the fashion of the logical inclusive "or." The output is "true" if either or both of the inputs are "true." If both inputs are "false," then the output is (false).” Sourceisthesameadress of thedefinitionslide

  7. “The XOR ( exclusive-OR ) gate acts in the same way as the logical "either/or." The output is "true" if either, but not both, of the inputs are "true." The output is "false" if both inputs are "false" or if both inputs are "true." Another way of looking at this circuit is to observe that the output is 1 if the inputs are different, but 0 if the inputs are the same.” XOR Gate Sourceisthesameadress of thedefinitionslide

  8. NOT Gate • “A logical inverter , sometimes called a NOT gate to differentiate it from other types of electronic inverter devices, has only one input. It reverses the logic state.” Sourceisthesameadress of thedefinitionslide

  9. NAND Gate • “The NAND gate operates as an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. It acts in the manner of the logical operation "and" followed by negation. The output is "false" if both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is (true).” Sourceisthesameadress of thedefinitionslide

  10. NOR Gate • “The NOR gate is a combination OR gate followed by an inverter. Its output is "true" if both inputs are "false." Otherwise, the output is (false).” Sourceisthesameadress of thedefinitionslide

  11. XNOR Gate • “The XNOR (exclusive-NOR) gate is a combination XOR gate followed by an inverter. Its output is "true" if the inputs are the same, and "false" if the inputs are different.” Sourceisthesameadress of thedefinitionslide

  12. Logic Gates OR And Xor Not Nand Nor Xnor

  13. Alsotheselogicgates can be joing and thisiscall, integratedcircuits.

  14. Integratedcircuitsdefinition • An integrated circuit, or IC, is small chip that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory. An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors. These extremely small electronics can perform calculations and store data using either digital or analog technology. • Digital ICs use logic gates, which work only with values of ones and zeros. A low signal sent to to a component on a digital IC will result in a value of 0, while a high signal creates a value of 1. Digital ICs are the kind you will usually find in computers, networking equipment, and most consumer electronics.

  15. Analog, or linear ICs work with continuous values. This means a component on a linear IC can take a value of any kind and output another value. The term "linear" is used since the output value is a linear function of the input. For example, a component on a linear IC may multiple an incoming value by a factor of 2.5 and output the result. Linear ICs are typically used in audio and radio frequency amplification. • Source:

  16. TruthTable • A truth table is a breakdown of a logic function by listing all possible values the function can attain. Such a table typically contains several rows and columns, with the top row representing the logical variables and combinations, in increasing complexity leading up to the final function. • In a logic function, there are three basic operations: NOR, NAND, XOR,XNOR, NOT, OR and AND. The values of the functions are normally assigned as logic 0 = false and logic 1 = true. Source:,,sid9_gci776118,00.html

  17. Hereisanexample of howthe AND tablefunction:

  18. OR example:

  19. Xorexample:

  20. Xnorexamples:

  21. Nandexample:

  22. Norexample:

  23. Notexample:

  24. Leddefinition • A semiconductor diode that converts applied voltage to light and is used in lamps and digital displays. Source:

  25. BreadboardDefinition • A thin plastic board used to hold electronic components (transistors, resistors, chips, etc.) that are wired together. Used to develop prototypes of electronic circuits, the boards can be reused for future jobs. Breadboards can also be used to create one-of-a-kind systems, although commercial products placed on printed circuit boards are typically much more robust and can handle greater frequencies.

  26. The breadboard contains spring clip contacts typically arranged in matrices with certain blocks of clips already wired together. The components and jump wires (assorted wire lengths with pins at both ends) are plugged into the clips to create the circuit patterns. The boards also typically include metal strips along the side that are used for common power rails and signal buses. Source:,2542,t=breadboard&i=38905,00.asp

  27. Here are somebreadboardpicture:

  28. BreadboardJumpersDefinition • Thebredboardisthesame, butthethingor material thatchangeisthe jumper wirethatisusedtoconectrows in thebredboard. Source:

  29. Picture bibliography • •

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