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Leaders and Strategies

Leaders and Strategies

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Leaders and Strategies

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  1. Leaders and Strategies Angela Brown Chapter 29 Section 1

  2. Laying the Groundwork - NAACP • Founded in 1909 by Niagara movement • Interracial organization – both African Americans and Whites participated http://www.africanamericans.com/images2/NiagaraMovement.gif

  3. W.E.B. Dubois • W.E.B. Dubois was the first African American to graduate from Harvard with a doctoral degree. • He edited NAACP magazine – Crisis http://www.nps.gov/archive/hafe/niagara/photos/niagara-leaders.jpg

  4. Focused on challenging laws that prevented African Americans from exercising full rights as citizens. • Mainly appealed to educated, middle and upper class African Americans and liberal whites. http://www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/images/Niagara100yrs_000.jpg

  5. http://www.africanamericans.com/images2/2ndNiagaraConference.jpghttp://www.africanamericans.com/images2/2ndNiagaraConference.jpg

  6. Emphasized achieving legal equality for all races. • Critics charged out of touch with basic issues of economic survival that faced many African Americans. http://www.diversitystore.net/ds/images/niagaralarge.jpg

  7. National Urban League • 1911 – sought to assist people moving to major cities (homes, jobs, training, labor issues) • Russell Simmons http://www.emailwire.com/news/graphics/f002757lg.jpg

  8. CORE • 1942 founded by pacifists • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) • Dedicated to bringing about change through peaceful confrontation • interracial http://nutrias.org/photos/porter/porter1.jpg

  9. The Philosophy of Nonviolence • 1957 Martin Luther King Jr. and other African American clergymen organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • Introduced concept of nonviolent protest • They did not resist even when attacked by opponents. • Shifted the focus of civil rights movement to the South. http://www.medaloffreedom.com/ WhitneyYoung2.jpg

  10. Martin Luther King, Jr. • Small town Baptist preacher • Symbol of nonviolent protest for entire world • Born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1929 amid southern segregation • Morehouse College – Crozer Theological Seminary – doctorate at Boston University in 1955 • Married Coretta Scott http://www.teachersparadise.com/ency/en/media/4/46/martin_luther_king.jpg

  11. Mohandas Gandhi • King was influenced by beliefs of Mohandas Gandhi a leader in India’s long struggle to gain independence from Great Britain • He succeeded in 1947 • preached nonviolence • peacefully refused to obey unjust laws http://worldpeace.org.au/images/gandhi5.jpg

  12. Bus boycotters advised to follow 17 rules for maintaining nonviolent approach – films, songs, skits showed Gandhi’s activities • Played a key role in almost every major civil rights event from bus boycott until death 11 years later = Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 • Often attacked physically and verbally, often put in jail, death threats were frequent

  13. King Assassinated • King was assassinated in Memphis, TN in April 1968 at age of 39. • James Earl Ray was convicted in 1969 and sentenced to 99 years in prison. http://www.hestoft.com/adm/photo/35_James_Earl_Ray.jpg

  14. http://www.africanamericans.com/images2/ MLKLastDayinMemphis.jpg http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/8425/MEMPHIS.JPG

  15. SNCC Breaks Away “Snick” • Philosophy of nonviolence won support of many white Americans for growing movement • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) – originally part of SCLC • 1960 Raleigh, NC – Ella Baker wanted to give youth a greater role in Civil Rights movement

  16. 200 students at first meeting – next month voted to maintain independence – interracial at first • Shifted focus from church leaders – wanted immediate change http://socialjustice.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/index.php/Student_Nonviolent_Coordinating_Committee

  17. Jesse Jackson • Baptist minister and close aid to Martin Luther King, Jr. • Headed Operation Breadbasket until 1971- expanded educational and job opportunities for African Americans. http://cpl.org/images/mlk/7001.jpg

  18. 1984 ran for Democratic Presidential Nomination . • His candidacy spurred African American voter registration. http://news.boisestate.edu/newsrelease/archive/2006/102006/Jackson.jpg

  19. Anne Moody • Anne Moody - key civil rights worker had to overcome family discouragement from cause http://images.amazon.com/images/P/0440314887.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg