Download
world war i n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
World War I PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
World War I

World War I

72 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

World War I

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. World War I The War to End All Wars

  2. The Road to War • Causes • Assassination • Archduke Franz Ferdinand • June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo, Serbia • Imperialism • World Powers wanted colonies • Competition led to conflicts

  3. Militarism • Countries fought rather than talked • New weapons and large armies • Nationalism • Countries only cared about their interests • Ethnic groups wanted own nations • Alliances • Six large countries entangled • If one gets involved, they all get involved

  4. Conflict Expansion • Austria-Hungry declares war on Serbia • Russia protects Serbia, declares war on AH • Chain reaction started • Troops begin mobilizing • Central Powers – Germany and AH • Allies – Russia, France, Serbia, England

  5. Stalemate • Both sides thought it would be quick • Germany got to 20 miles from Paris by September • Dug trenches • Stalemate – situation which neither gains advantage • Land between trenches was No Man’s Land

  6. Two Fronts • Germany’s Schlieffen Plan • Russia on east • France on west • Germany took Paris, lost land to Russia • 1914 – Ottomans joined Central Powers • 1915 – Italy joined Central Powers

  7. Modern Warfare • Most soldiers were very young • New, more deadly weapons • Machine gun, hand grenades, gas masks • “Over the Top” • Hurt morale • Civilians – burned fields, killed livestock, poisoned wells

  8. American Response • “Over There” • 92 Million immigrants felt “involved” • Most favored the side they came from • US supported the Allies • Didn’t like autocrat Kaiser Wilhelm • Autocrat – ruler with unlimited power • Used propaganda to sway opinion • Propaganda - biased information to sway opinions

  9. American Neutrality • Didn’t want to choose sides • Would lose money from trade • August 4, 1914 Wilson declared neutrality

  10. The Preparedness Movement • US did start to stockpile • Wanted US to train men for combat • Wilson increased military size

  11. The Peace Movement • Many Americans pushed for peace • Raised taxes • Thought people would be upset • Preparedness remained strong

  12. US Declares WarGerman Sub Warfare • The U-Boat • Unterseeboot • Attacked ships that carried munitions • The Lusitania • Passenger ships had no defenses • May 7, 1915 – British Passenger ship • Sank in 18 minutes, killed 1200 • 128 Americans

  13. Sussex Pledge • German government said they would warn before attacking ships • US didn’t care • Wilson began to lean toward war

  14. Moving Toward War • Wilson’s Reelection • 1916 “He Kept Us Out of War” • Germany tested his patience • Recalled Sussex Pledge • Feb 3rd, 1917 US cuts ties with Germany

  15. Zimmerman Note Some US wanted to keep peace Arthur Zimmerman, German’s Foreign Secretary Made secret offer to Mexico Mexico declares war on US, Germany give them SW Wasn’t taken seriously Mexico had other problems

  16. Revolution in Russia • 1917 – 1.5 mil dead, 2.5 mil POW • Army falling behind, losing • Czar Nicholas II dethroned • Revolution ensues

  17. War Resolution • 3 More ships sank • March 20, 1917 – unanimous war vote

  18. Americans on the European FrontPreparing for War • Draftees and Volunteers • Selective Service Act – May 1917 • Draft of young men for service • OK with it since “war to end all wars” • 24 mil volunteers, 3 mil draftees • 11,000 women – nurses and clerks

  19. Training for War • Many boot camps set up • Fighting, guns, trench digging, gas masks • Stories about German crimes • Some only got a few weeks training

  20. The Convoy System • Merchant and troops ships traveled in convoys • Convoy – group of unarmed ships with torpedo boats • Caused losses to drop by half

  21. American Soldiers in Europe • Fresh troops relieved the French and British who had been fighting for years • Americans were called doughboys • 300,000 AA volunteers in segregated units • Usual given menial tasks

  22. Turning the Tide of War Russia Leaves • November 1917 – Bolsheviks overthrew Russia’s government • Lenin took control, asked for peace • March 3, 1918 – signed truce • Germany got big piece of Russia

  23. Americans Save Paris • US General Pershing sent to push back Germans • Lost half the troops, but saved Paris • Pushed Germans to Marne River

  24. Allied Counterattack • 250,000 New American troops arrive • New weapon – Tank • Germans began full retreat

  25. War in the Air • US only had 55 planes when they started • Not war worthy • Used to find enemies, then became fighters • Zeppelins – floating airship • Bombing raids became very effective

  26. Ending the WarGetting Peace • German commanders begged for peace • Allies refused • The Kaiser fled to Holland • New German Republic signed armistice • Armistice – cease-fire • November 11, 1918 at 5am

  27. The Influenza Epidemic • Flu outbreak spread through world • Killed more people than the war • Killed a half million Americans • 30 million world wide

  28. Results of the War • 50,000 Americans died • 8 million total (5,000 a day) • Civilians hurt as well

  29. Americans on the Home Front • Financing the War • Liberty Bonds – Lend $ to Gov. to pay for war • Would be repaid later • Raised $20 billion • Sold by Scouts and with colored posters • Ads before movies

  30. Managing the EconomyNew Agencies • War Industries Board oversaw war related production • Unions promised few problems • Companies who dealt with enemy were punished

  31. Regulating Food & Fuel Consumption • August 1917 – Lever Food and Fuel Control Act • “Food will win the war” • Price controls – Gov. able to set prices on food • Rationing – distributing goods to consumers in fixed amounts • Daylight Savings Time – shifted sunlight, changed fuel consumption

  32. Enforcing LoyaltyFear of Foreigners • Gov. feared secret agents would spy • National Security League “100% American” • Literacy test for immigrants

  33. "Hate the Hun" • German Americans looked down on • Called them “Huns” • Anything German related was stopped • German measles = Liberty Measles

  34. Repression of Civil Liberties • 1917 – Espionage Act • Sedition – any speech or action that encourages rebellion • 1st Amendment forgotten • 1500 cases filed

  35. Controlling Political Radicals • Socialists held rallies “resist militarism” • Radical labor unions organized – IWW • Wanted to overthrow government • Vigilantes – citizens who take the law in to their own hands

  36. Social Mobility for Minorities and Women • Immigration stopped with war • Labor forced reduced with men at war • Women and minorities filled gaps

  37. Global PeacemakerThe Paris Peace Conference • January 1919 • Wilson’s 14 Points Speech • Big Four – US Pres. Wilson, British PM George, French PM Clemenceau, Italian PM Orlando • Wilsons said he didn’t want spoils of war • Just wanted world peace

  38. Wilson Forced to Compromise • Three countries wanted everything from Germany • Russia wasn’t there but didn’t want anything • Gave up a lot of his plans from 14 points

  39. League of Nations Wanted worldwide peace group Organization of nations to resolve disputes Would have no power, only countries armies World created it US didn’t join, congress didn’t approve

  40. The Peace Treaty Redrew map of Europe Created 9 new nations Divided up Germany’s colonies Blamed Germany – made them pay reparations $33 million Reparations – payment for economic injury Signed June 28, 1919 Germany felt beaten, never forgot

  41. Reaction at Home Several more votes for L.N. rejected Had to sign peace treaties with each country Economy began to suffer No way to bring troops back to society War contracts cancelled Women gave up jobs to men, went home People worried about the future