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The Immune System. Mariela & Julia. Basic Immune Vocab. Leukocyte: white blood cell Lymphocyte: white blood cell with a large spherical nucleus surrounded by a smooth cytoplasm. Pathogen: invading microorganisms and viruses (eg-cold/flu)

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the immune system
The Immune System
  • Mariela & Julia
basic immune vocab
Basic Immune Vocab
  • Leukocyte: white blood cell
  • Lymphocyte: white blood cell with a large spherical nucleus surrounded by a smooth cytoplasm.
  • Pathogen: invading microorganisms and viruses (eg-cold/flu)
  • Antigen: foreign molecules that stimulate a response from the immune system (eg-allergies to pollen)
  • Antibodies: defend against infection in body fluids
  • Cytokines: cell signaling protein molecules
innate and acquired immunity
Innate and Acquired Immunity
  • Innate immunity: involves recognition of traits shared by a broad range of pathogens using a set of receptors, and results in a rapid response.
  • Barrier defenses (skin, mucous membranes secretions)
  • Internal defenses: phagocytic cells, ain't microbial proteins, inflammatory response, natural killer cells
  • Acquired immunity: recognizes traits specific to particular pathogens using receptors, resulting in a slower response.
  • Humoral response: antibodies defend against infects in body fluids
  • Cell-mediated response: cytotoxic lymphocytes defend against infection in body cells
try this
Try THIS!!!
  • Although pus is often seen simply as a sign of a infection, it also an indicator of immune defenses in action! Explain.


Chap 43


innate immunity
Innate Immunity
  • Phagocytic white blood cells
  • Neutrophils: ingest/destroy microbes via phagocytosis
  • Monocytes: go into tissues and develop into phagocytic cells.
  • Eosinophils: defend against parasites by secreting hydrolytic enzymes.
  • Antimicrobial Proteins
  • Interferon: provide innate defense by making cells produce substances to inhibit viral infection
  • Inflammatory Response
  • Triggered by injury to tissue. Histamines are released to trigger the dilation of the capillaries, which allows clotting agents.
  • Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)
  • Recognize and remove diseased cells.
acquired immunity
Acquired Immunity
  • All vertebrates have two types of white blood cells (lymphocytes)!!
  • B lymphocytes (B cells): reproduce in the bone marrow
  • T lymphocytes (T cells): reproduce in the thymus (butterfly shaped gland at the base of your neck)
  • B or T cell activation occurs when an antigen binds to the B or T cell.
  • Clonal selection: B cell activation is enhanced by cytokines, allowing the lymphocyte to form two clones, thus creating a multitude of cells specific to fighting the particular antigen.
  • Effector cells fight the antigen.
  • Memory cells live longer and bear receptors for the same antigen, allowing the body to fit it successfully the next time.

Pollen (possible antigen)

b t cells
B & T cells
  • B cell receptors bind to intact antigens.
  • T cell receptors bind to antigens on antigen presenting cells (AHCs) on their major histocompatibilty complex molecules (MHCs).
  • MHCs: proteins that are the product of gene groups. Class I MHCs are on all body cells except for red blood cells. Class II MHCs are made by B cells, macrophages, and dendritic (branching neuron) cells.
  • Each B or T cell responds to only one antigen.
  • Primary immune response (the pilot episode): body exposed to antigen, lymphocyte activated.
  • Secondary immune response (season two): same antigen is encountered again!!! It is faster and stronger!!!
try this1
  • Explain the two advantages of having memory cells when a pathogen is encountered for a second time!