1780 Britain Moves South - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1780 Britain Moves South

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  1. 1780Britain Moves South

  2. Loyalists in arms • As early as the end of 1778, Britain began turning its attention South • Southern states were much more loyal to the crown than their northern counterparts • Many loyalists in the south took up arms to fight against the patriots • Formed Loyalist militias • Some joined British units, others waged their own attacks • In many cases, civil war in the south

  3. War moves South • On Dec. 29th 1778, British forces took control of Savannah, GA • Major port city • Began fortifying city

  4. Siege of Savannah • Almost a year later, on Sept. 16, 1779 American and French forces would lay siege to Savannah and try to reclaim city • Over 500 Haitians fought for French • On October 9th, a major American assault failed • Approx. 2,000 American casualties, including 800 dead • Siege was given up on Oct. 18 • Britain begins to tighten grip on the South

  5. Among the casualties was Polish general and volunteer Casimir Pulaski Known as the “Father of the American Cavalry” Extensive training of American cavalry Began in Valley Forge Casimir Pulaski Casimir Pulaski

  6. War in the South • General Henry Clinton began fortifying strategic port cities and moving north throughout the Carolinas • First Stop - Charleston

  7. Siege of Charleston • March 29-May 12, 1780 • Gen. Henry Clinton and 14,000 redcoats lay siege to Charleston, SC • Benjamin Lincoln held the city with 5,000 Americans • British captured Fort Moultrie which guarded the city • After a long siege, Americans surrendered their entire Southern Army • The worst American defeat of the war • Clinton left city under control of General Charles Cornwallis and returned to NY

  8. Battle of Camden • Aug. 16th 1780 • Camden, SC • 3,000 American forces under Horatio Gates had marched south • Replacing surrendered American forces • 2,000 British under Charles Cornwallis marched inland to block the advance of this new army • British quickly broke the American lines and easily routed the inexperienced troops • Gates led the retreat, arriving well ahead of his army in Charlotte, NC • Baron Von Kalb and his more experienced troops refused to retreat

  9. 2100 American Casualties Including Patriot General Baron Von Kalb Bayoneted several times while down 400 British casualties Camden Death of Baron Von Kalb at the Battle of Camden

  10. Nathanael Greene • Gates’ cowardly retreat led to his replacement as the head of the American Southern Army • Nathanael Greene would take over • Gritty, determined • "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again." • A soldier’s soldier • Began the war as a lowly private, and ended as Washington’s most trusted General Nathanael Greene

  11. Battle of Kings Mountain • Oct 7, 1780 • Kings Mountain, NC • 1000 Loyalist militia under Patrick Ferguson had fortified hill • 1000 Patriot militia • No real patriot command structure • “Partisans”- guerilla fighters • Patriots quietly surrounded hill, before unleashing deadly rifle fire • Multiple Patriot charges up the hill • Americans repulsed, regrouped, and charged again • Killed British General Ferguson after several hours

  12. Kings Mountain • American – 100 casualties • British – Entire loyalist army (1000) either killed, wounded, or surrendered • 9 hanged who had defected to the British • Demonstrated the effectiveness of partisan (guerilla) warfare

  13. Benedict Arnold • Given command of Philadelphia after British evacuated • Accused of profiteering from the war • Using army carts for business use • Closing some local business • Acquitted of most charges • Letter of reprimand from Washington • Married Peggy Shippen • 18 years old (20 yrs. younger) • British sympathizer, ties with leading Tories • John André

  14. Benedict Arnold • Felt betrayed by America • Not recognized for accomplishments • Gates took glory for Saratoga • Passed over on promotions • Wounded in service • Never repaid for his financial contributions to Continental Army • Taken to trial for profiteering

  15. The Deal Goes Down • In 1779 Benedict Arnold used his loyalist ties to begin negotiating with British General Henry Clinton via John André • Arnold was given command of West Point on the Hudson River, and agreed to surrender it to the British for 20,000 pounds • Teamed with Peggy’s ex - redcoat John André

  16. Treason • Andre acted as courier between Clinton and Arnold • While Andre was carrying documents from Arnold to Clinton, he was robbed by local thieves • Found incriminating documents in his boot • Turned him into Continental Army • Arnold heard of Andre’s capture and fled to British in New York • Andre was hanged as a spy

  17. Afterwards • Arnold was paid for his service, given land in Canada, pensions for himself and his wife and children, and a military commission as a British Provincial brigadier general • Arnold would successfully lead British forces to victories at Richmond, Virginia and New London, Connecticut before the end of the war • British never fully trusted Arnold • Moved to London and died in 1801