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Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Clash of Civilizations?

  • Understanding is needed both ways:

  • Some associate “terrorist” with Muslim.

  • Some associate “Great Satan” with USA.

  • Keep Mortenson in mind.

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Other Faiths

and None




Share of Total World Population of 6.45 billion (2006)

By definition, it matters …

2.2 billion Christians and 1.6 billion Muslims

represent 55 percent of the human family

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  • 570-632

  • Quaresh Tribe

  • merchant

  • Abu Bakr

  • Marries Khadijah

  • 610ff receives divine revelations

  • No images of Allah; Muhammad (idolatry)

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  • Qur’an (Koran)

  • 114 chapters (suras)

  • God’s banquet where all are invited but no one is forced.

  • Language is Arabic

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  • Islam means surrender.

  • Monotheistic (vs. polytheistic religions of the time)

  • Abrahamic

  • People of the Book

  • (Application of above to Judaism, Christianity, Islam. All Abrahamic religions; all People of the Book)

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Calligraphy(The name Allah)

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Five Pillars of Islam

  • Shahadah

  • Salah

  • Zakat

  • Sawm

  • Hajj

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  • Qur’an (above all the sources)

  • Sunna (M’s life, his “example”)

  • Hadith (oral tradition)

  • Sharia (“the straight path to Allah”)

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Islam – Nostra AetateThe Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions VCII

  • Nostra Aetate3. The Church regards with esteem also the Moslems. They adore the one God, living and subsisting in Himself; merciful and all- powerful, the Creator of heaven and earth,(5) who has spoken to men; they take pains to submit wholeheartedly to even His inscrutable decrees, just as Abraham, with whom the faith of Islam takes pleasure in linking itself, submitted to God. Though they do not acknowledge Jesus as God, they revere Him as a prophet. They also honor Mary, His virgin Mother; at times they even call on her with devotion. In addition, they await the day of judgment when God will render their deserts to all those who have been raised up from the dead. Finally, they value the moral life and worship God especially through prayer, almsgiving and fasting.

  • Since in the course of centuries not a few quarrels and hostilities have arisen between Christians and Moslems, this sacred synod urges all to forget the past and to work sincerely for mutual understanding and to preserve as well as to promote together for the benefit of all mankind social justice and moral welfare, as well as peace and freedom.

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The Rome Mosque

The Rome Mosque

  • Largest mosque in Europe (in Rome)

  • Built over 1984-93 with approval of John Paul II

  • Saudi Arabia contributed $25 million

  • In Saudi Arabia, any practice of non-Wahhabi Islam is prohibited

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Sunni Islam

  • Represents c. 85% of Muslims

  • Sunni (sunnah) tradition

  • Muhammad (d632)

  • Abu Bakr is rightful successor (ulama)

  • Sunnis are diverse

  • De-emphasize formal structures; broad participation (no need of clerical structure; lay people become leaders)

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Shi’a Islam

  • Shi’a = “group” “faction”

  • 10-20% of population

  • Ali – M’s son-in-law & his successors through Fatima (M’s daughter) are legitimate heirs

  • 680 martyrdom of Ali’s son Hussein

  • Hussein’s death analogous to death of Christ

  • 12 Imams

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Sunnis vs Shi’a

  • Sunnis say:

  • Emphasis on Ali raises him to being God.

  • Infallibility of imams deprives Muhammad of his privileged status.

  • Shi’as added to hadith

  • Permit temporary marriages

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Sufism – Rumi (Mevlana)

  • Spiritual tradition

  • Aimed at purity of heart, ethic of love

  • Accent spiritual rewards in afterlife

  • Commune directly with Allah through meditation, ritual chanting, dance

  • Neo-sufism

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Rumi - Poem

  • These spiritual window-shoppers, who idly ask, 'How much is that?' Oh, I'm just looking. They handle a hundred items and put them down, shadows with no capital.

  •  What is spent is love and two eyes wet with weeping. But these walk into a shop, and their whole lives pass suddenly in that moment, in that shop.

  •  Where did you go? "Nowhere." What did you have to eat? "Nothing much."

  •  Even if you don't know what you want, buy something, to be part of the exchanging flow.

  •  Start a huge, foolish project, like Noah.

  •  It makes absolutely no difference what people think of you.

  • Rumi – “We Are Three”

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Modernists and Traditionalists

  • Is it possible to modernize without Westernizing? (39)



  • “The Sunni Wahhabis, members of a puritanical denomination in the Arabian peninsula.” (42)

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Think of the 60 Minutes Interview on Aramco as you read this

  • “While Saudi Arabia is officially a moderate state allied with America, it has also been one of the main supporters of Islamic fundamentalism by financing schools following the Wahhabi doctrine. Saudi backed madrasas [religious schools] in Pakistan and Afghanistan have played significant roles in the strengthening of radical Islam in those countries.” (52) Note what countries.

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The “move” to Modernism

  • Intellectual and cultural isolation

  • Minimal research and development

  • Declining productivity

  • Inadequate education

  • Poverty of opportunities

  • Freedom denied Source:

  • High maternal mortality (U.N. Development Program &

  • Disaffected youth (54-56) Arab Fund for E&S Devel.)

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The Crossroads TodayThink of Egypt

  • “What the region needs to ensure a bright future for coming generations is the political will to invest in Arab capabilities and knowledge, particularly of Arab women, in good governance, and in strong cooperation between Arab nations. . . . The Arab world is at a crossroads. The fundamental choice is whether its trajectory will remain marked by inertia . . . and by ineffective policies that have produced the substantial development challenges facing the region; or whether prospects for an Arab renaissance, anchored in human development, will be actively pursued.” (56)