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Chapter 16 The Cold War 1945-1960. Section 1 The Cold War Begins. Objectives. What are the reasons that the wartime alliance between the US and the Soviet Union unraveled (fell apart)? 2. Explain how President Truman responded to Soviet domination of Eastern Europe?

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Chapter 16 the cold war 1945 1960

Chapter 16The Cold War1945-1960

Section 1

The Cold War Begins


What are the reasons that the wartime alliance between the US and the Soviet Union unraveled (fell apart)?

2. Explain how President Truman responded to Soviet domination of Eastern Europe?

3. Describe the causes and results off Stalin’s blockade of Berlin?

A new enemy
A New Enemy

After WWII, U.S. General George Patton administered western Germany, while Soviets officials governed eastern Germany, Patton looked to the east and proclaimed:

“Russia knows what she wants. World domination!...Let’s keep our boots polished, bayonets sharpened. And present a picture of force and strength to the Russians. This is the only language that they will understand and respect. If we fail to do this, then I would like to say that we have had a victory over the Germans and have disarmed them, but we have lost the war.”

According to Patton, what is the goal of the Soviet Union?

The cold war begins
The Cold War Begins

In 1930s, the policies of isolationism and appeasement contributed to the rise of dictatorships and the outbreak of global war.

After WWII, US realized these policies were a mistake; looked for new ways to make US safe as well as protect its interests around the world.

Focus question
Focus Question

How did US leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe?

Roots of the cold war
Roots of the Cold War

Franklin Roosevelt dies in April 1945

US still at war

Relations with Soviet Union (one of the most important wartime allies) breaks down

American and soviet systems differ
American and Soviet Systems Differ

US and Soviet Union united only in opposition to Nazi Germany


Capitalist country

Citizens believed in free elections

Economic and religious freedom

Private property

Respect for individual differences

Soviet Union


Under Stalin, Communist Party made all key economic, political, and military decisions

People could not worship as they pleased

People could not own property, or express their views freely

Those who opposed face imprisonment or death

Allies disagree on future of eastern europe
Allies Disagree on Future of Eastern Europe

At Yalta Conf. inn 1945, clear the allies would defeat Germany

Not clear how Germany and the nations of Eastern Europe would be governed after the war

Soviet troops already occupied much of Eastern Europe and some of Germany

Allies disagree on future of eastern europe1
Allies Disagree on Future of Eastern Europe

Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak

Wanted Eastern Europe to remain under Soviet control

US and GB sought a stronger, united Germany

Wanted independent nations in Eastern Europe

Allies disagree on future of eastern europe2
Allies Disagree on Future of Eastern Europe

Despite Stalin’s promises, nearly all of the land occupied by Soviet Red Army in spring of 1945 remained under Soviet control after the war

Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria; plus East Germany became know as “Satellite States” of the Soviet Union.

Truman and stalin clash at potsdam
Truman and Stalin Clash at Potsdam

Change in leadership by the time of the Potsdam Conference in 1945

Roosevelt had died in April 1945, Harry S. Truman now president

Churchill replaced by Clement Attlee

Truman and stalin clash at potsdam1
Truman and Stalin Clash at Potsdam

Truman left Potsdam believing Soviets were “planning world conquest”

Truman also believed alliance with Soviets falling apart

Stalin had Soviet Red Army at his command

Stage set for worldwide rivalry betw. US and Soviets

This 46-year long struggle became known as the “Cold War”

Checkpoint question
Checkpoint Question

How did the goals of US and Soviet foreign policy differ after WWII?

Meeting the soviet challenge
Meeting the Soviet Challenge

Truman not only world leader who believed Soviets had aspirations of world domination.

March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill at Fulton College, Missouri; referred to map of Europe and said that “an iron curtain has descended across the Continent”

Exerpt from churchill s speech
Exerpt from Churchill’s Speech

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of … Central and Eastern Europe … The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control”

Why did the Soviet Union support the creation of communist states in Eastern Europe?

Meeting the soviet challenge1
Meeting the Soviet Challenge

East of the iron curtain, Soviets gain control by installing communist governments and police states and by crushing political and religious dissent

Truman faces a crisis
Truman Faces a Crisis

Shares Churchill’s beliefs.

Born in small Missouri town

-Too poor to attend college (only

president of 20th C. with no college


-worked on family farm

-fought in France in WWI

-began political career afterwards

-known for his honesty, integrity,

hard work, and willingness to make

difficult decisions

Truman faces a crisis1
Truman Faces a Crisis

  • 1947 growing crisis between US and Soviets

  • After WWII a number of European and Asian countries struggling against soviet movements

  • -Greece and Turkey were some of

  • these countries

  • Needed aid

  • US only country with resources to

  • help

The truman doctrine opposes communist expansion
The Truman Doctrine Opposes Communist Expansion

March 12, 1947, addressed both houses of Congress.

Describes plight of Greeks and Turks

-said they were fighting a fight all free people had to


-request money from Congress “to support free peoples

who are resisting attempted subjugation (conquest) by

armed minorities or by outside pressures”

-warned US could not retreat into “isolationism”

-peace of the world and welfare of the nation at danger.

Congress responded by voting $400 million in aid

-Truman’s promise to aid those struggling against

Communism know as the “Truman Doctrine”

Checkpoint question1
Checkpoint Question

What events caused President Truman to propose what became known as the Truman Doctrine?

Containing soviet expansion
Containing Soviet Expansion

July 1947 in “Foreign Affairs” magazine author who called himself “X” published “The Sources of Soviet Conduct”

Presented blueprint for American policy that became known as “containment”

-goal to keep communism contained

within existing borders

Author was really George F. Kennan, an American diplomat and leading authority on the Soviet Union

Kennan argues for containment
Kennan Argues for Containment

  • Kennan contended Stalin was determined to expand Soviet empire, but would not risk security of Soviet Union for expansion

  • Only expand when it could do so

  • without serious risks

  • Stalin did not want to chance war

  • with US

  • Stalin just wanted to expand

  • communism

  • Kennan cautioned readers no quick

  • solution to Soviet threat

  • -containment required full

  • commitment of economic, political,

  • and military power from US

The marshall plan aids europe s economies
The Marshall Plan Aids Europe’s Economies

  • Containment policy’s first great success in Western Europe

  • After WWII people of Europe confronted:

  • -severe shortages of food, fuel, and medical supplies

  • as well as brutally cold winters

  • George C. Marshall, Secretary of State, unveiled recovery plan for Europe

The marshall plan aids europe s economies1
The Marshall Plan Aids Europe’s Economies

  • Early 1948, Congress approved Marshall Plan

  • -over next 4 years, US gave about $13 billion in

  • grants and loans

  • -these provided for food to reduce famine, fuel

  • to heat homes and factories, and money to

  • jump start economic growth

  • -aid also offered to Soviet satellite states, Stalin

  • refused

  • Marshall Plan vivid example of how aid could serve the ends of economic and foreign policy

  • -aid helped countries that desperately needed

  • help

  • the prosperity stimulated helped American

  • economy by inc. trade

  • the good relations the aid created worked

  • against communism

Checkpoint question2
Checkpoint Question

Why did George Kennan think that containment would work against Soviet expansion?

The cold war heats up
The Cold War Heats Up

  • Frontline of Cold War in Germany

  • zones controlled by US, France, and

  • GB combined to form “West Germany”

  • a. West Germany bordered on east

  • by Soviet controlled

  • East Germany

  • b. Allies controlled western part of

  • Berlin(city located deep inside

  • communist East Germany)

Berlin airlift saves west berlin
Berlin Airlift Saves West Berlin

  • West Berlin, “a bone in the throat” of the Soviet Union

  • Its relative prosperity and freedom in stark contrast to bleak life of East Berliners

  • Stalin determined to capture West Berlin or get concessions from Western allies

  • June 1948, stopped all highway, railway,

  • and waterway traffic from

  • Western Germany into West Berlin

  • -Stalin hoped without means of receiving

  • aid, West Berlin would fall to the

  • communists

Berlin airlift saves west berlin1
Berlin Airlift Saves West Berlin

Stalin able to closed roads, stop barges, and block railway; could not blockade the sky

-for almost a year, a massive airlift

supplied West Berlin

-food, fuel, medical supplies, clothing,

toys-everything needed was flown into

the city

Berlin Airlift demonstrated to West Berlin, Soviet Union, and world how far US would go to protect noncommunist Europe and contain communism

Cold war rivals form alliances
Cold War Rivals Form Alliances

May 1949, Stalin was forced blockade of Berlin failed.

Berlin airlift demonstrated that Stalin could be contained if Western nations prepared to take forceful action.

Cold war rivals form alliances1
Cold War Rivals Form Alliances

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization, formed in 1949

  • -provided military alliance to counter Soviet

  • expansion

  • -twelve Western European and North American

  • nations agreed to act together in defense of

  • Western Europe

  • -nations agreed that “an armed attack against

  • one or more of them … shall be considered an

  • attack against all of them”-called collective

  • security

  • 1955, West Germany became a member of

  • NATO

Cold war rivals form alliance
Cold War Rivals Form Alliance

  • Soviet response, Warsaw Pact

  • -all communist states of Eastern

  • Europe except Yugoslavia were

  • members

  • -like NATO, pledged to defend

  • one another if attacked

  • Even if agreed on paper about

  • not interfere in internal affairs,

  • Soviet Union continued to exert firm control on Pact allies

Checkpoint question3
Checkpoint Question

How did the US and its allies apply containment policy in Europe?