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The Cold War Begins, 1945-1960. Section 1: Origins of the Cold War. A Clash of Interests. Cold War. 1946-1990 became known as the Historical Background: Alliance between U.S. and Soviet Union began to break apart even before the end of WWII .

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The cold war begins 1945 1960

The Cold War Begins, 1945-1960

Section 1: Origins of the Cold War

A clash of interests
A Clash of Interests

Cold War

  • 1946-1990 became known as the

  • Historical Background:

    • Alliance between U.S. and Soviet Union began to break apart even before the end of WWII.

    • The United States and the Soviet Union became increasing hostile toward each other after the war.

    • This led to an era ofconfrontation and competition.

  • Why do you think it was called this??

Soviet security concerns the factors that most influenced the soviets
Soviet Security Concerns- The Factors that MOST influenced the Soviets

  • Security!

    • Keep Germany weak .(they had invaded the Soviet Union twice in 30 years).

    • Make sure the countries between Germany and the Soviet Union were under Soviet control.

  • They believed communismwould replace capitalism and the Soviet Union should encourage communism in other countries.

American economic concerns
American Economic Concerns the Soviets

  • Some Americans believed the Depression had caused the war (Hitler would never have come to power; Japan would not have wanted to expand its empire)

  • Trade Cut-backs

    • Have to go to war to get what you need.

  • FDR and advisors believed economic growth and free enterprise was the key to world peace.

  • Promote democracy and free enterprise.

    • Countries would be more stable and peaceful.

Yalta conference
Yalta Conference the Soviets

  • February 1945

  • Churchill, FDR, Stalinmet at the Soviet resort of Yalta to-

    • Plan the postwar world.

    • Specific Issues-

      • Poland,

      • Declaration of Liberated Europe,

      • Dividing up Germany

Poland the Soviets

  • After the Germans invaded Poland, their government leaders left and fled to Britain.

  • When the Soviet troops drove back

    the Germans and entered Poland, the Soviets

    encouraged Polish Communists

    to set up a new government.

  • Two Governments!

    • One communist

    • One non-communist.

  • Both Roosevelt and Churchill

    argued the Poles should be free

    to choose their own government!

  • Stalin wanted a government friendly to

    the Soviet Union!

Compromise the Soviets

  • Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by the Soviets.

  • Stalin agreed that the government would include members of the Polish government and that free elections would be held as soon as possible.

Declaration of liberated europe
Declaration of Liberated Europe the Soviets

“The right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live.”

  • Democratic institutions of their own choice.

  • Free elections.

Dividing germany four zones
Dividing Germany (Four Zones) the Soviets


Soviet Union


United States

Berlin four zones
Berlin, four zones the Soviets

War reparations
War Reparations the Soviets

  • Stalin demanded Germany pay heavy reparations.

  • FDR agreed but he insisted payments be based on Germany’s ability to pay.

  • Both agreed that trade goods and products could be used instead of cash.

Tension the Soviets

  • King of Romania pressured by Soviets into appointing a Communist government.

    • U.S. accused them of violating the terms of the Declaration of Liberated Europe.

  • Soon Soviets only allowed no more than

    3 non-communist Poles to serve in the Polish government. Didn’t look like they were going to allow free elections either!

Truman takes control
Truman Takes Control the Soviets

  • “We must stand up to the Russians”

  • Strongly anti-communist

  • Demanded Stalin hold free elections in Poland as he promised at Yalta.

  • This sets the stage for further confrontations!

Stalin can’t be trusted!

Potsdam conference july 1945
Potsdam Conference, July 1945 the Soviets

  • Truman meets with Stalin

    • Near Berlin.

    • To work out a deal on Germany

  • Truman believed the German economy would have to revive or the rest of Europe would never recover.

  • German people might turn to communism.

  • Stalin and his advisors needed reparations from Germany.

  • Meanwhile….

    • Russians were stripping their zone in Germany of its machinery and industrial equipment for use back home.

Potsdam the Soviets

  • Truman took a firm stand against heavy reparations.

    • Germany should be allowed to recover.

  • Truman suggested that the Soviets take reparations from their zone.

    • Stalin didn’t like Truman’s proposal

      • Soviet zone was mostly agricultural.

Deal or no deal
Deal or No Deal? the Soviets

  • Truman offered Stalin a small amount of German industrial equipment from the other zones but required the Soviets pay for part of it with food shipments from their zone.

  • Stalin didn’t like Truman’s proposal.

    • Truman told Stalin about test of the atomic bomb.

    • Stalin thought Americans were trying to keep the Soviets weak.

No way!

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”Winston Churchill

  • Occupation of the Soviet army in Eastern Europe ensured pro-Soviet Communist governments would be established in:

    • Poland

    • Romania

    • Bulgaria

    • Hungary

    • Czechoslovakia

  • These were called Satellite Nations.