COLD WAR BEGINS 1945-1960. Fire and Ice
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Stalin, Truman and Churchill (Atlee Replaces Churchill) meet in a Germany Stalin Lied to Roosevelt about having free elections in Poland and Truman gets angry… Truman is given the news of the success of the Atom bomb and uses this to be tough on Stalin.
The United States submitted the Baruch Plan, in 1946, which required the international inspection and supervision of the Nuclear programs for all countries, but it maintained the U.S. nuclear monopoly, and the Soviets rejected the plan. This signaled a hardening of the tensions and the beginning of the nuclear arms race
The TRUMAN DOCTRINE: “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
The overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh on 19 August 1953, by the CIA under the name TP AJAX Project. The coup saw the transition of Mohammad-RezāShāh Pahlavi from a Constitutional monarch to an authoritarian one who relied heavily on U.S. support to hold on to power until his own overthrow In February 1979. Mosaddegh was arrested, tried and convicted of treason. Mosaddegh's supporters were rounded up, imprisoned, tortured or executed.The 1953 Iranian coup d'état
The CIA Covert operation to Depose PresidentJacoboÁrbenzGuzmán with a paramilitary invasion by an “anti Communist army of liberation.” The Árbenz government had instituted a land-reform… the expropriation for peasant use, of unused farmlands that national and multinational corporations had earlier set aside. This threatened the agricultural monopoly of the United Fruit Company that owned 42 per cent of the arable land of Guatemala and lobbied the Eisenhower Administration to act against The Guatemalan President.
SPIES! Congressman Richard Nixon gained his reputation by prosecuting Alger Hiss, who is found Guilty of Perjury. The Statute of Limitations has run out for espionage
Ethel & Julius Rosenberg are found guilty of giving atomic secrets to the Soviets . They are both put to death, leaving their Children Orphaned.
According to evidence released by the Soviets after the end of the Cold War, In “Project Venona” indicates that Julius Rosenberg and Alger Hiss in all probability guilty. Ethel may not have been.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare,.
The House Un-American Activities committee (HAUC) targeted the film industry because it was high profile and because of the propaganda value of movies.
The Marshall Plan stipulated that the money borrowed by foreign countries had to be spent in America, thus further spurning the American Economy.
In 1946, Republicans gained control of both houses of congress, and began to undo New Deal Reforms. In 1947 they passed the TAFT Hartley Act, which outlawed CLOSED SHOP shops and allowed states to pass “RIGHT to WORK LAWS. It also prohibited the use of Union Dues for political activity. Finally It allowed the president to declare a 90 day cooling off period in national strikes. Even though Truman vetoed the bill, congress was able to override his veto .
When Eisenhower became President, he appointed Earl Warren to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court . Earl Warren former Republican Governor of California turned out to be a progressive Republican and demanded a unanimous decision in the landmark Civil Rights case of Brown V Board of Education in which the case of Plessy v Ferguson which determined that Separate but equal was constitutional, Brown v Board reversed that decision saying that “Separate was inherently unequal” When Arkansas Governor OrvalFaubus called out the National guard to prevent 9 black students from admission to Little Rock High School, Rising demands to end Racial Segregation compelled , Eisenhower, to nationalize the National guard and helped to escort and protect those students on the Little rock High School Campus.
In 1955, Rosa Parks stepped into history books when she refused to stand up and let a white man take her seat. The Black Community promoted a young Black Minister, Martin Luther King Jr. to organize a boycott. But not until the Supreme Court ruled the bus segregation illegal in 1956, did the policy change. M.L. King and Other Ministers established the Southern Christian Leadership Conference a year later in 1957.
In 1960, Eisenhower became more aware of the costs and limitations of relying on Nuclear weapons to deal with the Soviet Union. The term Mutually Assured Destruction(MAD) came about to express one such limitation. Eisenhower tried to arrange for a Conference with General secretary Khrushchev , but a U-2 Spy Plane flying over Soviet Air Space was shot down, At first the U.S. Denied the incident, but the Soviets said “we Have the Plane” then the U.S. said it was an accidental off course flight… and the Soviets said; “we have the Pilot. “ and the U.S. admitted to spying, and arranged to make a trade for the Pilot, Gary Francis Powers. The Soviets used this as an excuse to cancel the Conference.
Patriotism played a role in how people viewed Nuclear Proliferation in the early years. When residents of Nevada learned an Atomic testing site would be placed in their area, they were excited. Over the years more evidence has come to light demonstrating the level of Health Risks of persons working in the Nuclear industry and those living down wind of it. Today, residents of Nevada have been fighting a plan to make Nevada a location for spent nuclear devises.
"In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist."