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Weight Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Weight Management. Chapter 14. Basic Concepts. Body Composition Lean Body Mass Body Fat Essential fat Nonessential fat-(storage) - 3% of total fat in men, 12% in women Percent Body Fat - Women: < 8% at risk, Average 23%, > 32% at risk

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Weight management l.jpg

Weight Management

Chapter 14

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Basic Concepts

  • Body Composition

    • Lean Body Mass

    • Body Fat

      • Essential fat

      • Nonessential fat-(storage) - 3% of total fat in men, 12% in women

  • Percent Body Fat -

    • Women: <8% at risk, Average 23%, > 32% at risk

    • Men: < 5% at risk, Average 15%, > 25% at risk

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Energy Balance

  • Crucial to keep a healthy ratio of fat and lean body mass

    • Energy

    • Consumption or expenditure of calories

    • Control over intake of calories

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Evaluating Body Weight and Body Composition

  • Percent body fat and distribution of body fat = weather a change on body composition would improve health.

  • Overweight

  • Obesity

  • Height-Weight charts

  • Body Mass Index (BMI)

  • Body Composition

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Assessment of Body Weight

  • Measurement.

    • Body Mass Index - BMI= (weight (kg)/Height (m)squared.

      lbs. = kg [lbs./2.2] inch = m [inch / 39.4].

      Healthy BMI = 18.8 - 24.9

      BMI of 25or above is Overweight

      BMI of 30 or above is Obese

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BMI Results

  • Elevated BMIs risks =.

    • BMIs between 23 and 25 double risk of High blood pressure in men. 26 triples the risk.

    • BMI of 24 increased the development of Type II diabetes by five times above that of a BMI of 21 in women.

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Methods of Determining Percent Body Fat

  • Hydrostatic (underwater)

  • Skinfold

  • Electrical Impedance Analysis

  • Waist-To-Hip ratio

    • Waist and the widest part of the hips

      • Ratio - 1.0 or higher for men

        0.8 or higher for women

        Indicate elevated risk

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Excess Body Fat and Wellness

  • The amount of fat in the body - and its location- can have profound effects on health.

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The Health Risks of Excess Body Fat

  • Obese individuals have a mortality rate twice that of non-obese

    • Associated with: diabetes, elevated cholesterol levels, impaired heart function, hypertension and cancer

    • Psychological health: depression, body dissatisfaction and eating disorders

  • Body Fat distribution and Health

    • Apples

    • Pears

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  • Weight cycling or YO-YO effect of dieting

  • Some feel that it may be harmful to both overall health and to efforts at weight lost.

  • Studies have not yet conclusively shown weight cycling be harmful.

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Body Image

  • Collective picture of the body as seen through the mind’s eye.

    • Perceptions

    • Images

    • Thoughts

    • Attitudes

    • Emotions

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Is It Possible to Be Too Lean?

  • Less than 8% for women and less than 5% for men.

  • Extreme has been linked to problems with:

    • Reproductive

    • Circulatory

    • Immune system disorders

  • Female Athlete Triad

  • Amenorrhea

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Factors Contributing To Excess Body Fat

  • Genetic Factors

  • Physiological Factors

    • Metabolism (RMR)

    • Hormones

    • Fat Cells

    • Carbohydrate Craving

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Factors Contributing To Excess Body Fat

  • Lifestyle Factors

    • Eating

    • Physical Activity

  • Psychosocial

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Adopting A Healthy Lifestyle For Successful Weight Management

  • “Normal” body weight

  • Diet and Eating Habits

    • Total Calories

      • 1600 calories - Sedentary women and older adults

      • 2200 calories - Children, teenage girls, active women, and sedentary men

      • 2800 calories - Teenage boys, active men, and very active women.

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Adopting A Healthy Lifestyle For Successful Weight Management

  • Portion Sizes

  • Energy (calorie) Density

  • Fat Calories

  • Complex Carbohydrates

  • Simple Sugars and Refined Carbohydrates

  • Protein

  • Eating Habits

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Physical Activity and Exercise Management

  • Muscles needing energy.

    • Not anaerobic only burns simple sugars.

    • Aerobic burns more of the fat.

      • Must last 15-30 minutes.

      • Use all major muscle groups.

      • Gradually increase time of

        endurance activities.

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Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle Management

  • Thinking and Emotions

  • Coping strategies

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Creating an Individual Weight Management Program Management

  • Assess your motivation and commitment.

  • Set a weight loss goal that is healthy and reasonable.

  • Create a negative energy balance.

  • Increase your level of physical activity.

  • Make changes in your diet and eating habits.

  • Keep records of your weight and behavior change progress.

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Overcoming a Weight Problem Management

  • Self- Help programs.

    • Initial weight loss from fluids.

    • Very low calorie diets need to be avoided.

    • Diet Books:

      • Reject books with gimmicks or rotating levels of calories.

    • Diet Supplements and Diet Aids

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Overcoming a Weight Problem Management

  • Legitimate programs provide;

    • Nutritional Education

      • Emphasis on exercise and change in lifestyle

      • Individual and Group counseling

      • Self-Help groups

      • Registered dietitians

      • Physician monitored program

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Weight Loss Management

Most Experts Recommend a Gradual Weight Loss of ½ to 2 Pounds Per Week!!

1 Lb. Of Fat Is About 3,500 Calories.

How? Reduce Diet by 250 Calories/day and Expend 250 Additional Calories/day

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Prescription Drug Management

  • Appetite Suppressants

  • Produce a 5-15% weight reduction by controlling appetite.

  • Once drugs are stopped most return to original heavy weight.

  • Good option for very obese who need help getting started - permanent life style change.

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Surgery Management

  • Severely obese - BMI of 40 or higher or are 100 pounds or more over recommended weight.

    • Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass

    • Liposuction

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Psychological Help Management

  • Acceptance and change

    • Can-do attitude

    • Body Image

    • Knowing when the limits to healthy change have been reached.

    • Knowing the unrealistic cultural ideal.

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Eating Disorders Management

  • Problems with body weight and weight control.

  • 1 Million Americans develop anorexia or bulimia each year - 90% are female.

  • Factors in developing an eating disorder

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Eating Disorders Management

  • Anorexia Nervosa - Failure to eat enough food to maintain a reasonable body weight.

    • Characteristics

      • Fear gaining weight.

      • Distorted self-image.

      • Compulsive behaviors and rituals.

    • Health Risks

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Eating Disorders Management

  • Bulimia Nervosa - recurring episodes of binge eating followed by purging.

    • Characteristics

      • Rapidly consumes food, then purges.

      • Done in secret.

      • After a binge - feels ashamed, disgusted and physically and emotional drained.

    • Health Risks

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Eating Disorders Management

  • Binge-Eating - Similar to Bulimia except no Purging behavior.

    • Eating patterns - very rapid, eating until uncomfortably full.

    • Often eat as a way of coping.

    • Likely to be obese.

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Anorexia BulimiaHealth Risk

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Treatment Management

  • Address both eating disorder, misuse of food and manage emotions

    • Anorexia Nervosa

    • Bulimia Nervosa

    • Binge-Eating

  • Today’s Challenge

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Correct Weight Management

  • The “right” weight for any individual should be the result of a healthy lifestyle.

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Thank You Management