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Welcome. CSCI/CINF 4230 Web Application Developement Section 02 Tue., 7:00–9:50 p.m. Instructor: Charles Moen Email – crmoen@juno.com Web page – http://sce.uhcl.edu/moenc Office – Delta Building 232 Office hours Tue., 5:00–7:00 p.m.

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CSCI/CINF 4230 Web Application Developement

Section 02 Tue., 7:00–9:50 p.m.

Instructor: Charles Moen

Email – crmoen@juno.com

Web page – http://sce.uhcl.edu/moenc

Office – Delta Building 232

Office hours

Tue., 5:00–7:00 p.m.

If the hall door is locked, phone me at (281) 283-3848

Home – 281-796-2820

csci cinf 4230

Client-side Web development

HTML, XHTML, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), JavaScript

Server-side Web development


Server-side database access


Other basic topics in Web development

HTTP protocol, parameter passing, session tracking, cookies

Web 2.0

today s objectives
Today’s Objectives

Class roster

Course overview

Required textbooks

Web site

Syllabus and schedule

Hosting your web sites for this course at UHCL

How to succeed

Basic concepts

Web 2.0


required textbooks
Required Textbooks

David Schultz and Craig Cook, Beginning HTML with CSS and XHTML: Modern Guide and Reference.

Apress, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59059-747-7

Matthew MacDonald, Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 in C# 2008: From Novice to Professional, Second Edition. Apress, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59059-891-7

Course Overview

recommended reference books
Recommended Reference Books

Stephen Spainhour and Robert Eckstein (ed.), Webmaster in a Nutshell, 3rd Edition.

O’Reilly, 2002. ISBN 978-0-59600-357-9

Other books are listed in the “FAQs” page for this class

Safari Books Online by O'Reilly


You can access Safari from any PC inside UHCL campus network.

Provides the full text of hundreds of books

Course Overview

course web pages
Course Web Pages

Course page








Course Overview

hosting your web site
Hosting Your Web Site

The dcm server is used to host Web sites for UHCL courses

You will get an account on this server, and your homework must be done on it


Operating system: Windows Server 2003

Web server: IIS6


Files for your Web pages go in the “pages” folder

The “db” folder has an Access database file, “db.mdb”

Krishani Ekanayake is the administrator


Course Overview

how to succeed
How to Succeed

Expect to spend 10–15 hours per week on this class

Use a text editor to write the code, and write a lot of code

Read other peoples’ programs

After grading is finished, post your homework on your home page

Homework assignments

Start them early, and hand them in on time

Check the requirements and make sure nothing is missing

Team project

Select your team mates

Attend the classes & participate

Read the book and the resources

Course Overview

the internet
The Internet

A global network of interconnected networks‏

Based on technology developed in the 1960’s

ARPAnet, the first version, was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense in a quest to implement a computer network that could survive a nuclear bomb attack – if part of the network was destroyed, then routers would direct packets through the surviving paths(ARPAnet = Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)‏

Goal: a robust network of many computers for sharing scientific and military data

Initially, ARPAnet connected only four computers at UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah.

Mid 1970s, many government agencies and universities were connected;Early 1990s, private and commercial networks were added

No one owns the Internet

The Internet Society, a 1992 non-profit group, oversees its policies and protocols

Basic Concepts (Dougherty, Howe, Tyson)‏

growth of the internet
Growth of the Internet

Basic Concepts (http://www.internetworldstats.com)‏

the internet continued
The Internet (Continued)

General-purpose network

TCP/IP - protocols for sending packets of data on the network

Many services run on the Internet




World Wide Web (just one service that uses the Internet)

Every computer that connects to the Internet is already part of a smaller network

When you connect to the Internet at home, you become part of your Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) network

At work or at school, your computer connects to the Internet through the Local Area Network (LAN)‏

Thus, the Internet is a network of networks

Basic Concepts (Dougherty, Howe, Tyson)‏

internet infrastructure
Internet Infrastructure

Basic Concepts (Tyson; Wikipedia)‏

Point of Presenceis the physical connection to the Internet used by the ISP(servers, routers, switches)‏

Network Access PointFour physical facilities for data exchange between service providers. Now replaced by Internet Exchange Points (IXP)(network switches)‏

Internet Service Provider is a company that provides access to the Internet

world wide web
World Wide Web

“A system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet”- Wikipedia

Created by Tim Berners-Lee

In 1989, proposed it as a way to share documents over a network while he was working at CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics)‏

Originally conceived as just a collection of shared documents

Based on hypertext – links within the text that link to other text

By 1990, built the first Web server, named “httpd,” and the first Web browser, named “WorldWideWeb”

His work was released to the public in 1993

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)‏

Standards organization for the Web

Founded by Tim Berners-Lee

Basic Concepts (Berners-Lee, Dougherty, Howe, Tyson, Wikipedia)‏

Sir Tim Berners-Lee

from www.w3c.org/People/Berners-Lee

how does the web work
How does the Web work?

The Web uses a client-server architecture

Basic Concepts (Guelich)‏

Web server software,

such as Apache or IIS

is the server

1. The browser sends an HTTP request over the Internet to the server

A Web browser,

such as FireFox

is the client

3. The server sends an HTTP response to the browser containing the HTML text

2. The server examines the request to determine what document to return, index.html in this example

4. The browser interprets the HTML and displays it as a Web page

GET /index.html HTTP/1.1

client server architecture
Client-server Architecture

Web application development technologies:

Basic Concepts (Guelich)‏

Web server software,

such as Apache or IIS

is the server

A Web browser,

such as FireFox

is the client










web server
Web Server

Server software

Installed on a computer connected to the Internet

Often the computer that runs the server software is referred to as a “Web server”

Manages a collection of HTML documents, as well as documents in other languages, such as C#

Manages and “serves” the clients’ requests for the documents

Two Web server programs dominate the market share today



Basic Concepts (Doughterty, Netcraft)‏

web server1
Web Server

Netcraft, June 2008 Web Server Survey. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://news.netcraft.com/archives/web_server_survey.html

Basic Concepts (Netcraft)‏

user agents
User Agents

Software that interprets HTML

Many different devices can access the Web

Computers, PDAs, cell phones, game consoles, appliances

Web browser

The most familiar user agent

Graphical Web browser – pages rendered with styled text, colors, and images

The most-popular browsers

Microsoft Internet Explorer



Basic Concepts (Schultz)


Uniform Resource Locator

The address of a document on the Web

Basic Concepts (Ding, Spainhour, Schultz)‏



Host nameor IP address

following by an optional port number, e.g.


Path to the document

Rules for moving data over the Internet

The root directory in this path is defined by the server, and may not be the same as on the host’s file system


Indicates the type of file.

If there is no document name in the URL, the server is usually configured to use “index.html” or “default.html”

The human-readable domain name is translated to a machine usable IP address by the Internet’s Domain Naming Service servers

url for local development
URL for local development

The loopback address

Basic Concepts (Ding, Spainhour)‏


web design evolution
Web Design Evolution

First Generation

Plain, mostly text

Single column

Presentation (appearance) set by browser defaults

Gray background with black text

Links were underlined and in color

Emphasis on structure, not design

Few images

Horizontal rules

Bullet lists

Often created by programmers, not designers

Slow modem connections were common

Basic Concepts (Siegal, Ding)‏

From Wikipedia

web design evolution1
Web Design Evolution

Second Generation

Netscape extensions to HTML introduced



The <blink> tag

Designers usually controlled the presentation

Some common features

White backgrounds

Banners across the top of the page

Icons and graphic text for headings

Graphic buttons with beveled edges

Tiled images in the background

Animated gif graphics

Basic Concepts (Siegal, Ding)‏

From the Internet Archive WaybackMachine

www.jpmorgan.com, June 30, 1998

web design evolution2
Web Design Evolution

Second Generation(cont.)‏


Main, graphic-intensive home page

Menus and button bars for navigation

Tables, introduced by Netscape, were often used to organize the page into columns

Many sites were well-designed

The best ones showed that the designers were concerned about legibility and communicating clearly to the visitor

Many sites were garish and ugly

The worst second generation sites used technical tricks, such as animated gif icons just because they were “cool”

Basic Concepts (Siegal, Ding)‏

From the Internet Archive WaybackMachine

www.uiuc.edu, March 03, 1997

web design evolution3
Web Design Evolution

Third Generation



Clever visual design based on a theme

Tables used extensively

CSS used for presentation

Designed to involve userswith the site

Often started with a splash screen

Basic Concepts (Siegal, Ding)‏

From the Internet Archive WaybackMachine

www.klutz.com, Feb 02, 2001

web design evolution4
Web Design Evolution

Fourth Generation

Sophisticated visual design

Presentation is designed with div elements, defined with CSS, not tables

Most sites use server-side software

Multi-tiered on the server side

Database driven

Possibly with web services

New technologies

AJAX and client-side software

Flash, Silverlight, Adobe AIR

Big focus is web usability and accessibility

Basic Concepts (Siegal, Ding)‏





accessibility and usability
Accessibility and Usability


Your Web site should be accessible to anyone under all circumstances


Users with diminished eyesight must use screen readers

Some users don’t use a mouse; they may be partially disabled

Some users disable JavaScript


Enhancing your page with features that make it easier to use


Show a form field only when it is needed by the user

Make important topics easy to find

Keep the user interface simple

Basic Concepts (Koch, Ding)‏

what is web 2 0
What is Web 2.0?

A phrase by Tim O’Reilly

Published online, “What Is Web 2.0, Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software”

September 2005

Web 2.0 Conference

Now in its fifth year, called “Web 2.0 Summit”

“Web 2.0” and the conference were created by brainstorming about what is important to the Web after the collapse of the “dot-com bubble”

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

what is web 2 01
What is Web 2.0?

A buzzword – difficult to understand because there’s no consensus on its meaning

Generally refers to a new phase of Web business models and technologies

An attempt to identify characteristics of Web businesses that survived the dot-com crash

It is not a new standard for the World Wide Web

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

web 1 0 vs web 2 0

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

Web 1.0 vs. Web 2.0

Web 1.0

Web 2.0




Web services



  • Britannica Online
  • Publishing
  • Personal websites
  • Screen scraping
  • Directories
  • Netscape
some web 2 0 characteristics
Some Web 2.0 Characteristics


Data intensive

Open architecture for participation

Social networking

Lightweight software development

Perpetual beta

Business model takes advantage of the long tail

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

software development web 2 0 style

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

Software DevelopmentWeb 2.0 Style

Microsoft – “old school”

Google – Web 2.0

Services through the Web, no sales, no licensing

Universal thin client (browser)

In “perpetual beta” – will be improved incrementally over the course of time

One version

One copy; hidden massive server farms

Open standards and public API

Value is the data

  • Traditional sales and licensing
  • Heavy weight desktop software
  • Long update cycle
  • Tens of versions
  • Millions of copies
  • Backward compatible
  • Value is in the software
the long tail and web 2 0
The Long Tailand Web 2.0

Chris Anderson (2005)‏


“The future of business is selling less of more”

“Make everything available”

Keep prices as low as possible

Help the buyers find what they want

Amazon.com vs. Barnes and Noble

Netflix vs. Blockbuster

Strategy differences

“Blockbuster” strategy is to sell a large number of very popular items

“Long Tail” - Sell small quantities of obscure items to a large number of people

Web 2.0 (Anderson, Wikipedia)‏

The Long Tail


Most popular

Least popular

Products are ranked by popularity on the horizontal axis

food for thought about the long tail
Food for Thoughtabout The Long Tail

Anita Elberse, “Should You Invest in the Long Tail?”. Harvard Business Review, 2008.


Anita Elberse investigated actual sales patterns in the music and home video industries to test whether the Long Tail theory has a good potential for profit

Her conclusions:

The Long Tail theory might work, but in limited cases

The blockbuster strategy is still the most reliable

Web 2.0 (Elberse)‏

some web 2 0 technologies
Some Web 2.0 Technologies



Web Services API

Social networking

Web syndication, e.g. RSS

Folksonomies – collaborative tagging

Ruby on Rails

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

some web 2 0 applications
Some Web 2.0 Applications



Select “Explore” to see a “tag cloud”, an example of a folksonomy where the most popular tags are in a larger font size

Google Docs

Cloud computing – software is provided as an Internet service



Storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks



Bit Torrent

Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, Ding, Yue)‏

food for thought about web 2 0 technologies
Food for Thoughtabout Web 2.0 technologies

Is the Web still the Web?

Neil McAllister (June 3, 2008)‏


“ Given the growing number of data types and file formats being transmitted over HTTP and the increasing complexity of the applicationsthat make use of them, is today’s Web really still the Web? Or is it morphing into something else?”

Tim Berners-Lee – the Web as information storage based on hypertext

Web documents – text marked up with HTML; linked to other documents


Rich client interface

Technologies like Ajax, Flash, MS Silverlight, Google Web Toolkit, cloud computing

Is it inappropriate to force these technologies to use the Web infrastructure?

Web 2.0 (McAllister)‏


Chris Anderson (2005)‏. “The Long Tail”. [Online]. Available: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail_pr.html

Berners-Lee, Tim. (1990). “WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project”. [Online]. Available: http://www.w3.org/Proposal

Berners-Lee, Tim. “Tim Berners-Lee” (Homepage). [Online]. Available: http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee

Ding, Wei, “Introduction of Web Application Development” UHCL lecture slides, 2008.

Dougherty, Dale and Richard Koman, The Mosaic Handbook for Microsoft Windows. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly and Associates, Inc.,1994.

Howe, Walt. (2007). “A Brief History of the Internet”. [Online]. Available: http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html

Koch, Peter-Paul, PPK on JavaScript. New Riders, 2007.

O'Reilly, Tim. (2005). “What Is Web 2.0". [Online]. Available: http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html.

Tyson, Jeff. “How Internet Infrastructure Works”. [Online]. Available: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet-infrastructure.htm

Siegal, David, Creating Killer Web Sites (Second Edition). Hayden, 1997.

Yue, Kwok-Bun, “Web 2.0, Research and You”. Presentation at UHCL, 2006.