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Chapter 7. Implementation. Implementation Approaches. Big bang Code entire system and test in an unstructured manner Top-down Start by implementing modules on top of hierarchy and test by coding stubs Bottom-up Start by implementing modules on bottom of hierarchy and code drivers to test

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Chapter 7 l.jpg

Chapter 7

Implementation


Implementation approaches l.jpg
Implementation Approaches

  • Big bang

    • Code entire system and test in an unstructured manner

  • Top-down

    • Start by implementing modules on top of hierarchy and test by coding stubs

  • Bottom-up

    • Start by implementing modules on bottom of hierarchy and code drivers to test

  • Threads

    • Implement and test a minimal set of modules implementing a function


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Big bang advantages

None

Big bang disadvantages

Difficult to debug

Much throwaway code

Critical and peripheral modules not distinguished

User does not see product until very late in the development cycle

Implementation ApproachesAdvantages and Disadvantages


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Top-down advantages

Separately debugged modules

System test by integrating previously debugged modules

Stubs are easier to code than drivers

User interfaces are top-level modules

Top-down disadvantages

Stubs must be written

Low-level, critical modules built last

Testing upper-level modules is difficult

Implementation ApproachesAdvantages and Disadvantages


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Bottom-up advantages

Separately debugged modules

System test by integrating previously debugged modules

Testing upper-level modules is easier

Bottom-up disadvantages

Drivers must be written

Upper-level, critical modules are built last

Drivers are more difficult to write than stubs

User interfaces are top-level modules

Implementation ApproachesAdvantages and Disadvantages


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Implementation Plan

  • Specifies which implementation strategy will be employed

  • Divides the project into phases

  • Specifies a schedule for each phase including the following steps for each phase:

    • Coding

    • Unit testing

    • Integration of units

    • Integration testing


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Sample Implementation Plan

Week number 4 5 6 7 8

Activity

Phase I codingPhase I unit testingPhase I integrationPhase I integration testingPhase II codingPhase II unit testingPhase II integrationPhase II integration testing


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Implementation in the LMS Case Study

  • Phase I

    • CheckOutResource

    • CheckInResource

  • Phase II

    • ManageResource

  • Phase III

    • ManagePatron

  • Phase IV

    • BrowseResource

    • RequestResource

    • ReserveResource

    • GenFormLetter

( See deliverable 7.3 for a sample schedule )


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Programming Style

  • Programmers should strive for simple and readable code

  • Shorter code is usually simpler code

  • Simpler code typically contains fewer decisions

  • Excessively nested logic should be avoided


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Comments and Internal Documentation

  • Most successful software systems exist for several years and require modification during that time

  • Comments are the chief source of information about the source code, and thus are extremely important

  • A header comment block summarizes the purpose of a module (class or method)

  • Line comments are inserted into the source code to explain the objectives of a subset of the instructions comprising a module


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Programming Standards for the LMS Case Study

  • General Rules:

    • Structured programming techniques should be used in all methods

    • Comments should be used to identify the purpose of each method and to clarify obscure processing

    • Each method must be prefaced with a comment box

    • All major blocks of code should also be prefaced with comment boxes

    • Each major control structure (loop, selection) should be clarified through a line comment

    • All code should be simple and easy to read


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Programming Standards for the LMS Case Study

  • Modularization Rules:

    • Each method must perform only one task

    • Global variables should not be used. Data should be shared only through the parameter list

    • If, during implementation, a need arises for a class not specified in the design, the design must be reexamined before the new class is implemented


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Programming Standards for the LMS Case Study

  • Declarations:

    • All variables must be declared and explicit types used

    • Name of variables and methods should describe their content or usage. An exception can be made for naming subscripts and counters

    • Declarations of any files should precede variable declarations

    • Declarations of instance variables in a class should precede method definitions


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Programming Standards for the LMS Case Study

  • Executable instructions:

    • Align and indent parallel constructs. Indent subsequent levels at least three spaces. Each line should contain at most one instruction. Use blank lines to set off major control constructs

    • Do not use goto

    • Use priming read/looping read technique for all sequential files

    • Open and close files explicitly

    • Avoid negative conditions


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Complete your own Implementation Plan:

  • Gather into your development groups, and work out your plan: impPlan.doc


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