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RELIGION

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  1. RELIGION

  2. Religions • Hinduism (followers =Hindus/Hindoos) • Islam (followers =Muslims) • Christianity (followers =Christians) • Sikhism (followers =Sikhs) • Buddhism (followers =Buddhists) • Jainism (followers =Jains/Jainas) • Zoroastrianism(followers =Parsees/Parsis) • Bahá'í Faith (followers =Bahá'ís) • Tribal religions: Donyi-Polo, Santhal • Judaism

  3. Population trends for major religious groups (1961–2001)

  4. Characteristics of religious groups (2001 census)

  5. Religious Map of India

  6. Religious Minorities Map of India

  7. Muslim population in India • Red - 50-100% • Orange - 25-50% • Yellow - 20-25% • Green - 15-20% • Blue - 10-15% • Indigo - 5-10% • Gray - < 5%

  8. Hinduism: divisions • Vaishnavism • Shaivism • Smartism • Shaktism

  9. Hinduism: types • Folk Hinduism, as based on local traditions and cults of local deities at a communal level and spanning back to prehistoric times or at least prior to written Vedas. • Śrauta or "Vedic" Hinduism as practiced by traditionalist brahmins (Śrautins). • Vedantic Hinduism, for example Advaita Vedanta (Smartism), as based on the philosophical approach of the Upanishads. • Yogic Hinduism, especially that based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. • "Dharmic" Hinduism or "daily morality", based on Karma, and upon societal norms such as Vivāha (Hindu marriage customs). • Bhakti or devotionalist practices

  10. Hinduism: Scriptures • Vedas • Upanishads • Purāṇas • Mahābhārata • Rāmāyaṇa • Bhagavad Gītā • Āgamas

  11. Hindu philosophy schools • Samkhya  • Yoga  • Nyaya  • Vaisheshika  • Purva-Mimamsa • Vedanta

  12. Objectives of human life • Dharma (righteousness, ethikos) The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad views dharma as the universal principle of law, order, harmony, all in all truth, that sprang first from Brahman. It acts as the regulatory moral principle of the Universe. It is sat (truth), a major tenet of Hinduism. • Artha (livelihood, wealth) Artha is objective and virtuous pursuit of wealth for livelihood, obligations and economic prosperity. It is inclusive of political life, diplomacy and material well-being. • Kāma (sensual pleasure) Kāma means desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love. • Mokṣa (liberation, freedom from samsara) Moksha or mukti, literally "release" (both from a root muc "to let loose, let go"), is the last goal of life. It is liberation from samsara and the concomitant suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and reincarnation.

  13. Hinduism: Yoga • Bhakti Yoga (the path of love and devotion) • Karma Yoga (the path of right action) • Rāja Yoga (the path of meditation) • Jñāna Yoga (the path of wisdom)

  14. Pilgrimage • Char Dham (literally: 'the four abodes/seats') - the four widely revered pilgrimage places: Badrinath (north), Dwarka (west), Jagannath Puri (east), and Rameshwaram (south). • KumbhMela- a mass pilgrimage gathering to bathe in a sacred river; • the world's largest religious gathering, with 80 million people expected in 2013. • held every third year at one of the four places by rotation: Haridwar (north), Allahabad (Prayag) (north), Nasik (west), Ujjain (centre). 

  15. Festivals • Holi - festival of colors and spring (February-March) • Mahashivaratri (Shiva Ratri) - night sacred to Shiva (February-March) • Rama Navami - birthday of Lord Rama (April) • Krishna Jayanti - birthday of Lord Krishna (July-August) • Raksābandhana- renewing bonds between brothers and sisters (July-August) • Kumbh Mela - pilgrimage every 12 years to four cities in India (July-August) • Ganesha-Chaturthi (Ganesha Utsava) - festival of Ganesh (August-September) • Dassehra - victory of Rama over demon king Ravana (September-October) • Navaratri - festival of Shakti (in Bengal) or Rama's victory over Ravana (South India) (September-October) • Diwali - festival of lights and Laksmi (September-October)

  16. Islam dominance in India • 1001: Raids by Mahmud of Ghanzi • 1206-1290: Slave Dynasty and Beginning of Delhi Sultanate • 1290-1320: Khalji Sultanate • 1320-1413: Tughlug Sultanate • 1414-1451: Sayyid Sultanate • 1483-1757: The Mughal Empire • 1526-1530: Reign of Babur • 1556-1605: Reign of Akbar • 1605-1627: Reign of Jahangir • 1628-1658: Reign of Shah Jahan

  17. Christianity in India

  18. Sikhism: Khalsa • Khalsa is the purified and reconstituted Sikh community instituted by Guru Gobind Singh on March 30, 1699 • Khalsa [Persian ‘King’s own’, ‘the army of the pure’] • eating only ritually killed meat • abstaining from tobacco, alcohol • refraining from committing adultery • wearing/carrying the Five Ks: 1. kes (long hair) 2. kangha (a comb) 3. kachha (a pair of shorts) 4. karha (a steel bracelet) 5. kirpan (a sword)

  19. Temples: Hindu Kapaleeswarar Temple in Chennai,  Tamil Nadu Saivate temple in Murudeswar, Karnataka Shiva temple, the main shrine ofPrambanan Brihadeeswara Temple, RajaRajeswara Temple at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu

  20. Temples: Muslim • Jama Masjid, in New Delhi • Taj Mahal, in New Delhi • Bahauddin Makbara, in Gujarat

  21. Temples: Christianity • San Thome Basilica in Chennai • Mar Thoma Syro-Malabar Catholic Church,  in Kodungaloor

  22. Temples: Sikkhism • Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in Punjab • Hazoor Sahib in Maharashtra

  23. Temple: Buddhism • The Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya • Ellora Caves in Maharashtra

  24. Temples: Jainism • Palitana temples (basadi/basti) in Gujarat • Temples of Mount Abu in Rajastan

  25. Temples: Zoroastrian • Iranshah Atash Behram, in Gujarat • Maneckji Seth Agiary,  in Mumbai

  26. Temples: Bahá'í The Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi,

  27. Next class Test: Religion Lecture: Culture: Literature. Music. Theatre Presentations: The cult literary works about India Ramayana Musical instruments Koodiyattam theatre Discussion: The land of contrasts