Religion is belief in a god or gods and the activities that are connected with this belief, such as prayer or worship in a church or temple.
How many religions do you know? What are they? • Do you have faith in a religion? • What kind of life do you expect to lead? / What is the purpose in life? • Do we have another form of existence after we die? • Do you want to be immortal?
World Major Religions Judaism Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism
Polytheism and Monotheism Polytheism: such as ancient Greek and Roman religion Monotheism: such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Judaism • religious culture of the Jews (also known as the people of Israel); one of the world’s oldest continuing religious traditions. It has a history of more than 3,000 years. • Torah (Old testament ) • Talmud (body of Jewish civil and religious law, including commentaries on the Torah)
Bible • Bible, also called the Holy Bible, the sacred book or Scriptures of Judaism and of Christianity. • The Bible of Judaism and the Bible of Christianity are different. • The Jewish Bible is the Hebrew Scriptures, 39 books originally written in Hebrew, except for a few sections in Aramaic. • The Christian Bible is in two parts, the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New Testament.
This ornate Torah case contains a handwritten parchment scroll of the Torah, or Pentateuch, for reading before a congregation in a synagogue. Of Persian origin, the case is now at the Jewish Museum in New York City. Torah Case
Creation Garden of Eden Temptation Punishment Ancestors of Mankind
The fall of mankind • Cain and Abel
Abraham or Abram • biblical patriarch, progenitor of the Hebrews, who probably lived in the period between 2000 and 1500 bc. • Abraham(100) and Sarai, or Sarah---Isaac Circumcision • Hagar (86)---Ishmael--is regarded by Muslims, who call him Ibrahim, as an ancestor of the Arabs through Ishmael.
Exodus • Moses • Hebrew prophet and lawgiver and founder of Israel, or the Jewish people. • At that time the Hebrews lived in Egypt and were oppressed by the Egyptian ruler, Pharaoh. • Commanded by Yahweh • Mount Sinai
The Ten Commandments • 1. I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the Land of Egypt ... You shall have no other gods before me (Exodus 20:2-3) • 2. You shall not make an image (Ex.20:4-6) • 3. You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain (Exodus 20:7) • 4. Remember the Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11) • 5. Honor your father and your mother (Exodus 20:12) • 6. Do not murder (Exodus 20:13) • 7. Do not commit adultery (Exodus 20:13) • 8. Do not steal (Exodus 20:13) • 9. Do not swear falsely against your neighbor (Exodus 20:13) • 10. Do not desire your neighbor's house, wife, or servant (Exodus 20:14)
David (king) (?-961 bc) • king (1000-961 bc) of Judah and Israel, founder of the Judean dynasty. • Defeat Philistine giant Goliath • David had selected Solomon, his son by Bathsheba, as heir to the throne.
One of Michelangelo’s best known creations is the sculpture David (1501-1504). The 5.17-m (17-ft) tall marble statue shows an alert David waiting for his enemy Goliath. Michelangelo’s David
Solomon • Solomon succeeded his father despite the claims of Adonijah, his older half brother. • He kept the united kingdom largely intact, strengthened its fortifications, and made alliances not only with Tyre, but also with several other nations surrounding Israel. • his reputation for wisdom • Offended God for his having 700 wives and 300 concubines, so separated Isreal
The Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, was built between 1759 and 1763 using the colonial style common to most churches of that time. Touro is the oldest synagogue in the United States. Touro Synagogue
Rabbi (Hebrew, “my master”), • honorary title of the Jewish masters of the Law. It was in use at the time of Jesus Christ, who was himself addressed as such. The title is still maintained, though not strictly, as the official designation of Jewish ministers. • The rabbi was at once student, interpreter, and teacher of the Torah.
Western Wall Biblical archaeologists believe that the Western Wall in Jerusalem, also known as the Wailing Wall, is all that remains of the Second Temple, which was destroyed in ad 70.
celebrations • Passover, important Jewish festival commemorating the exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt and their safe flight across the Red Sea.
Christianism • Christianity presented itself as “new,” not in the sense of novel and brand-new, but in the sense of continuing and fulfilling what God had promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Son of a Jewish carpenter Joseph and Mary Born in Bethlehem The story of Jesus
Baptized in the Jordan River by by John. The miracles. Beginning of his ministry
Christ on the Cross After allowing the Jews to choose whether or not Jesus should die, Pontius Pilate condemned him to death. Jesus was forced to carry his own cross to Golgotha, where he was crucified. Christ on the Cross was painted by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens in 1620, Trial and crucifixion
A question • How do you understand the death of Jesus? Why he could save others but not himself? Do you think his life is a failure?
East-West schism • 1054 Roman Catholic church and Orthodox church • 16th century Reformation • Protestants • Puritans
Islam • In the Arabic language, the word Islam means “surrender” or “submission”—submission to the will of God. • A follower of Islam is called a Muslim, which in Arabic means “one who surrenders to God.” • The Arabic name for God, Allah, the God, refers to the God worshiped by Jews and Christians.
Muhammad • Muhammad was born in Mecca around the year AD 570. He was orphaned at six. • concerned about the polytheism and superstitions of the Meccans and other Arabs • became familiar with the teachings of the Jews, accepting the person of Christ • Around 610, he claimed to have received a visitation from the angel Gabriel, who told him he was the messenger of God.
Muslims believe that the Qur’an is an infallible transcription of God’s message to Muhammad. As the messenger of God and seal of the prophets, Muhammad was charged with the responsibility of relaying this message to all believers.
Five pillars • profession of faith (shahada) 念功, • prayer (salat), 拜功 • fasting (sawm), 斋功 • almsgiving (zakat), 天课 • pilgrimage (hajj). 朝功
Kaaba(Mecca) Muslim legend teaches that the ancient religious patriarchs Abraham and Ishmael built the shrine using foundations first laid by Adam.
Interesting Points ----God approaches man first both in Judaism and Christianity, in Judaism through offering privilege to the Jews, in Christianity by being more human -----In Islam, God seems to resume the authority -----Koran is to confirm the previous scriptures and to bring people of the book back to the right path
Similarities ----all believe in one God ----believe for the afterlife ----require compassion and love towards each other ----woman is submissive to men
Major conflicts Who is Jesus Christ? The city of Jerusalem should belong to whom?
Quiz • Among Christianity, Islam and Judaism, which one is the oldest? • According to Islam, who is Jesus Christ? • Who founded Judaism? • Baptism is a ritual in which of the three religions? • What is the holy city claimed by all three religions? • Christianity was originated around what time? • Muhammad is the founder of which religion? • Ten Commandments are the doctrine of which religion? • Which religion is believed to be the religion of the Chosen People? • 10. What is the major symbol of Christianity?