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Religion

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Religion

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  1. Religion 11.19.13

  2. Warm Up • List in order what you think are the top 5 religions in the world according to followers. • . • . • . • . • .

  3. World Religions • Religion: Members: • Christianity 2.3 Billion • Islam 1.5 Billion  • Hinduism 1.1 Billion   • Buddhism (?) 440 Million  • Shinto (?) 45-120 Million • Sikhism 24 Million • Judaism 17 Million • Jainism 10 Million • Baha'I 8 Million • * there are 500 million folk religions followers spread across Asia, Africa and the Americas as well as 500 million exclusively Chinese folk religions followers (Taoism, Confucianism.).

  4. World Religions

  5. Major Religion World Map

  6. History of Religion (and war…) http://www.mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of-religion.html

  7. Christianity

  8. Christianity People are sinful and that separates people from God Romans 3:23 For everyone has sinned; we all fall short of God’s glorious standard. 24 Yet God, with undeserved kindness, declares that we are righteous. He did this through Christ Jesus when he freed us from the penalty for our sins. 25 For God presented Jesus as the sacrifice for sin. People are made right with God when they believe that Jesus sacrificed his life, shedding his blood. This sacrifice shows that God was being fair when he held back and did not punish those who sinned in times past, 26 for he was looking ahead and including them in what he would do in this present time. God did this to demonstrate his righteousness, for he himself is fair and just, and he declares sinners to be right in his sight when they believe in Jesus.

  9. Christianity Despite people’s desires to live selfish or godless lives, God still wants relationship with people. John 3:16 For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. 17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. 18 Whoever believes in him is not condemned…

  10. Christianity Love God and love one another. 1 John 3:16 We know what real love is because Jesus gave up his life for us. So we also ought to give up our lives for our brothers and sisters. 17 If someone has enough money to live well and sees a brother or sister in need but shows no compassion—how can God’s love be in that person?  18 Dear children, let’s not merely say that we love each other; let us show the truth by our actions.

  11. History of Christian Branches Split in AD 1054 Michael Cerularius Split in AD 1517 Martin Luther

  12. Why was Jesus important historically? • to Rome: Rich/Poor (no discrimination, looks at the heart, widows) • Roman/Greek mentalities were based on doing everything for themselves , they made gods in their own image, rather than Christianity’s explanation that God made people in His image • Roman/Greek gods - lower the bar, nothing to improve-no desire to help others, just yourself - society • Christianity - Humility, complete love of others, forgiveness, God's consistent love for you • Kingdom of Heaven is now - Righteousness, Peace and Joy - that's what he offered • Completely revolutionized what people believed was the way to live - pompous, self-righteousness, “me first!” • to the World: Time Magazine's Man of the Millennium in 2000 - no figure has been more influential • Christianity is beginning to be found in every culture, frequently in the form of humble help: Harvard University, Salvation Army, Red Cross, etc.

  13. 15 & 2 Time To Chew With your teammate: Discuss and write down the part that stood out to you. Discuss and write down questions about the previous section covered.

  14. Islam

  15. Islam • Islam is to Muslim as • Christianity is to Christian as • Judaism is to Jew as • Ninjutsu is to Ninja.

  16. Muslim Distribution

  17. Early Arab lifestyle • Nomadic • Ruled by sheikh • Most Arabs were polytheistic, Judaism/Christianity was also prevalent • Major god represented by black meteorite that was kept in holy tent.

  18. Muhammad

  19. Muhammad (Mohammed) • Born in Mecca AD 570 • Background – trader/merchant • Disappointed by gap between rich/poor • Angel Gabriel, Caves, Black Rock • Fleeing from Mecca to Medina (the “Hirjrah”) – AD 622 • Triumphant return to Mecca (“Hajj”) where Muhammad’s forces fought the Meccans for 8 years finally conquering in AD 630

  20. Islam=Allah • Five Pillars of Islam: • Belief (in Allah as the one God) • Prayer (5 times a day toward Mecca) • Charity (giving $$$/alms to the poor) • Fasting (during Ramadan during the day) • Pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca

  21. The Black Stone The Black Stone is a Muslim relic, which according to Islamic tradition dates back to the time of Adam and Eve. It is the eastern cornerstone of the Kaaba, the ancient stone building towards which Muslims pray, in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Stone is a dark rock, polished smooth by the hands of millions of pilgrims, that has been broken into a number of fragments cemented into a silver frame in the side of the Kaaba. Muslim pilgrims circle the Kaaba as part of their ritual of the Hajj pilgrimmage.

  22. Islamic Burka? The Koran, Islam's holy book , tells Muslims - men and women - to dress modestly. Male modesty has been interpreted to be covering the area from the navel to the knee - and for women it is generally seen as covering everything except their face, hands and feet when in the presence of men they are not related or married to. This has led to a distinction between the hijab (literally "covering up" in Arabic) and the niqab (meaning "full veil"). Hijab is a common sight among Muslim women, a scarf that covers their hair and neck. Niqab consists of covering up completely, including gloves and a veil for the face - leaving just a slit for the eyes, or covering them too with transparent material.

  23. 15 & 2 Time To Chew With your teammate: Discuss and write down the part that stood out to you. Discuss and write down questions about the previous section covered.

  24. Judaism

  25. Judaism / Israelites Dates c.2300 Abraham 1200 BC Moses 970-930 Height of Israel Location Eastern Mediterranean Contributions Hebrew language Monotheism Hebrew Bible Judeo-Christian Ten Commandments Leaders Abraham (c.2400) Moses (c.1500s) Solomon(970-930) Religion Monotheistic Judaism Yahweh/God (later Christianity and Islam claim connection to Judaism) Cities Jerusalem

  26. Abraham – Judaism, Christianity, Islam

  27. Abraham – Judaism, Christianity, Islam

  28. Hand out…

  29. 15 & 2 Time To Chew With your teammate: Discuss and write down the part that stood out to you. Discuss and write down questions about the previous section covered.

  30. India

  31. Hinduism The classical theory of the origins of Hinduism traces the religion's roots to the Indus valley civilization circa 4000 to 2200 BCE. The development of Hinduism was influenced by many invasions over thousands of years. The major influences occurred when lighter-skinned, nomadic "Aryan" Indo-European tribes invaded Northern India (circa 1500 BCE) from the steppes of Russia and Central Asia. They brought with them their religion of Vedism. These beliefs mingled with the more advanced, indigenous Indian native beliefs, often called the "Indus valley culture.".

  32. India’s Caste System

  33. Hinduism The primary sacred texts of Hinduism are the Vedas: the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. The Rig Veda (a.k.a. Rigveda) may be the oldest of the four. Estimates of its date of composition in oral form range from 1500 BCE to 4000 BCE. The Yajur and Atharva Vedas refer to the vernal equinox having occurred in the Pleiades constellation -- an event dating from about 2500 BCE. The date when the Vedas were placed in written form is unknown. Various dates from 600 to after 300 BCE have been suggested.

  34. Hinduism • Categorizing the religion of Hinduism is somewhat confusing: • Hinduism has commonly been viewed in the west as a polytheistic religion - one which worships multiple deities: gods and goddesses. Although a widespread belief, this is not particularly accurate • Some have viewed it as a monotheistic religion, because it recognizes only one supreme God: the panentheistic principle of Brahman, that all reality is a unity. The entire universe is seen as one divine entity who is simultaneously at one with the universe and who transcends it as well. • Some view Hinduism as Trinitarian because Brahman is simultaneously visualized as a triad -- one God with three persons: • Brahma the Creator who is continuing to create new realities • Vishnu, (Krishna) the Preserver, who preserves these new creations. Whenever dharma (eternal order, righteousness, religion, law and duty) is threatened, Vishnu travels from heaven to earth in one of ten incarnations. • Shiva, the Destroyer, is at times compassionate, erotic and destructive.

  35. 15 & 2 Time To Chew With your teammate: Discuss and write down the part that stood out to you. Discuss and write down questions about the previous section covered.

  36. BUDDHA

  37. Buddhism The name Buddhism comes from the word 'budhi' which means 'to wake up' and thus Buddhism is the philosophy of awakening. This philosophy has its origins in the experience of the man Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, who was himself awakened at the age of 35. Buddhism is now 2,500 years old and has about 300 million followers world-wide. Until a hundred years ago, Buddhism was mainly an Asian philosophy but increasingly it is gaining adherents in Europe and America.

  38. Buddhism Buddhism, like most of the great religions of the world, is divided into a number of different traditions. However, most traditions share a common set of fundamental beliefs. One fundamental belief of Buddhism is often referred to as reincarnation -- the concept that people are reborn after dying. In fact, most individuals go through many cycles of birth, living, death and rebirth. A practicing Buddhist differentiates between the concepts of rebirth and reincarnation. In reincarnation, the individual may recur repeatedly. In rebirth, a person does not necessarily return to Earth as the same entity ever again. He compares it to a leaf growing on a tree. When the withering leaf falls off, a new leaf will eventually replace it. It is similar to the old leaf, but it is not identical to the original leaf. After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can attain Nirvana. This is a state of liberation and freedom from suffering.

  39. Buddhism 4 Noble Truths 1.) Ordinary life is full of suffering. 2.) This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves. 3.) The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as extensions of ourselves. 4.) The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path.

  40. Buddhism’s Middle Path • Right View: We need to know the Four Noble Truths. • Right intention: We need to decide what we really want. • Right speech: We must seek to speak truth and to speak well of others. • Right action: The Buddha gave five precepts: “Do not kill. Do not steal. Do not lie. Do not be unchaste. Do not take drugs or drink alcohol.” • Right livelihood: We must do work that uplifts our being. • Right effort: The Buddha said, “those who follow the Way might well follow the example of an ox that arches through the deep mud carrying a heavy load. He is tired, but his steady, forward-looking gaze will not relax until he comes out of the mud.” • Right mindfulness: We must keep our minds in control of our senses: “All we are is the result of what we have thought.” • Right concentration: We must meditate to see the world in a new way.

  41. 15 & 2 Time To Chew With your teammate: Discuss and write down the part that stood out to you. Discuss and write down questions about the previous section covered.