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Religion PowerPoint Presentation

Religion

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Religion

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  1. Religion a fundamental part of human culture Can have a profound effect on human interaction with their environment and other cultures thereby shaping the development of a people’s cultural landscape

  2. Religion • Although religious affiliation is on the decline in some parts of the world’s core regions, it still acts as a powerful shaper of daily life, from eating habits and dress codes to coming of age rituals and death ceremonies, holiday celebrations, and family practices in both the core and periphery

  3. Geography and Religion • Geographers see that the process by which one religion diffuses across the landscape may conflict with the distribution of others – examples? • Geographers also observe that religion is derived in part from elements of the physical environment, and that religions, in turn, modify the landscape.

  4. Geography and Religion • Geographers, though, are not theologians, so they stay focused on those elements of religion that are geographically significant: • Spatial connections: • Distinctive places of origin • Extent of Diffusion • Process of Diffusion • Practices and beliefs that lead some to have more widespread distributions

  5. Globalization and Local Diversity of Religion • Geographers find the tension in scale between globalization and local diversity especially acute in religion: • People care deeply about their religion • Religions values are important in how people identify themselves and organize their landscape • Migrants may assimilate in all ways BUT religion • DISCUSS: Has more modern technology and forms of communication increased or decreased religious tension?

  6. Religion • Definitions: • relatively structured set of beliefs & practices through which people seek mental & physical harmony with the powers of the universe. • Set of stones, symbols, beliefs, & practices that give meaning to the practitioner’s experiences of life though reference to an ultimate power of reality • A belief system and a set of practices that recognizes the existence of a power higher than humans

  7. Religion • Religion encompasses ancestral or cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as personal faith and religious experience • Through rituals religion is celebrated (birth, marriage, death, etc.) • Religion doesn’t just explain natural forces but helps people make sense of their place in the world.

  8. Religion is one of the most complex, and often controversial, aspects of the human condition. • Core component of culture • Often lies at the root of conflict • Definitive trait of a culture and highly territorial phenomenon with links to the spirit of a place, ethnicity, and nationality • Example • Virgin of Guadalupe

  9. Universalizing vs. Ethnic Religions • Universalizing Religions • Have universal appeal and attract all people to their beliefs • Examples: • Christianity, Islam, Buddhism • 60% of world follows a universalizing religion • Universalizing religions have precise places of origin, based on events in the life of a man. • Universalizing religions can be broken down into: • Branches: • Large fundamental divisions within a religion • Denominations: • Groups of common congregations within a branch • Sects: • Smaller groups that have broken away from a recognized denomination within a branch

  10. Universalizing vs. Ethnic Religions • Ethnic religions • Ethnic religions have unknown or unclear origins, not tied to single historical individuals • Attempt to appeal to only one group • One place or one ethnicity • Examples: • Judaism, Hinduism

  11. Types of Religions • Polytheistic • Belief in more than one god, or goddess • Hinduism?? , Voodoo • Monotheistic • Belief in one god, or goddess • Islam, Christianity, Judaism • Animistic • Centered on the belief that inanimate objects, such as mountains, boulders, rivers, and trees, possess spirits and should therefore be revered.

  12. Religion Families • Abrahamic • Christianity • Islam • Judaism • Baha’I faith • Rastafarianism • Indian • Hindu • Buddhism • Sikhism • Jainism

  13. Religion Families • African • Primal Indigenous • African traditional • African Diasporic • Far East • Taoism • Confucianism • Shinto • Caodaism • Yiguandao (I-Kuan Tao) • Chinese folk

  14. Religion Families • Other • Juche • Spiritism • Neopaganism • Ahl-E Haqq (Yarsan) • Yazidism • Scientology

  15. Universalizing Religions • Christianity • Islam • Buddhism • Sikhism • Ba’hai

  16. Christianity • Largest universalizing religion • 2 billion adherents • Predominate in: • North America • South America • Europe • Australia • Founder • Jesus of Nazareth • Date: 30 C.E. • Origin • Palestine (Israel) • Doctrine • 10 commandments • Diffusion • Initially • Relocation- Migration • missionaries • Expansion • Contagious- Roman Empire • Branches • Roman Catholic • Europe: SW, East • South America • North America = 40% (NW, SE) • Headed by Pope • Receive grace from sacraments • Eucharist • Protestant • Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, etc. • Europe: Northwest • North America= 28% (highly clustered) • Reformation- Martin Luther • Oct 31, 1517 • Individuals could directly communicate with God • Eastern Orthodox • Europe: SE, East • Middle East • Ruled by Patriarchs • Split with Roman Catholic teachings after 8th century C.E.

  17. On the map: • For the Mormons, Lutherans, and Baptists: • List and explain 2 reasons why they are dominant in their specific regions • How is this map incomplete?

  18. Christianity • Holy book • Bible • Holy places • Churches • Jerusalem • Landscape impact • Churches • Roman Catholic • More elaborate • Cathedrals • Protestant • More plain • Orthodox • Cathedrals, Byzantine style • Cemeteries • Christians bury their dead • Hierarchy in burials • Administration • Roman Catholic *hierarchical • Pope • Archbishops- Province • Bishops- Diocese • Priests- Parish • Mormons- hierarchical • Calendar • Roman/ Protestant • Gregorian calendar • Orthodox • Julian calendar • Holidays • Easter= death and resurrection of Jesus • Christmas= Birth of Jesus

  19. Islam • 2nd largest universalizing religion • World’s fastest growing religion • 1.3 billion people • Founder • Muhammad • 622 C.E. • Origin • Arabian Peninsula, Middle East • Doctrine • 5 Pillars of Islam • Allah one true God • Prayer 5x a day facing Mecca • Charity • Fast during Ramadan • Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca • Branches • Sunni • 83 % of Muslims • Middle East, Asia • “people following the example of Muhammad” • Succession of Muhammad • From the community • Shiite • 16% of Muslims • Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Oman, and Bahrain • Word for “sectarian” • Succession of Muhammad • Must come from familial line of Muhammad • Diffusion • Military conquest after Muhammad’s death • Then relocation diffusion through missionaries • Ex. North Africa • Ex. Indonesia- Arab traders

  20. Islam • Holy Book • The Quran • Holy Places • Mecca • Birthplace of Muhammad • Medina • Muhammad's tomb • Jerusalem • Muhammad’s ascension • Landscape Impact • Mosques • Central, open-air courtyard • Minaret tower • Cemeteries- Burial of dead • Administration • Local autonomy • No formal religious hierarchy • Secular states • Calendar • Lunar calendar • 30 year cycle • 19 years with 354 days • 11 years with 355 days • Holidays • Holy month of Ramadan • Art • Calligraphy • Geometric design

  21. Islam in the US • Islam has had a presence in the US through the Nation of Islam, also known as the Black Muslims • Founded in Detroit in 1930 and led for more than 40 years by Elijah Muhammad • Today is led by Louis Farrakhan

  22. Buddhism • 3rd largest universalizing religion • Difficult to gage number • Can be Buddhist and other religion • 400 million adherents • China, SE Asia • Founder • Siddhartha Gautama • 563 B.C.E. • Origin • India/ Nepal • Doctrine • Four noble truths • 8-fold path • Branches • Mahayana • 56 % • China, Japan, Korea • Split from Theravada 2000 years ago • Less demanding • More encompassing • Theravada • 38% • Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand • Oldest branch • “way of the elders” • Full-time occupation, monks • Tibetan • 6% • Tibet and Mongolia • Diffusion • No rapid diffusion • Emperor Asoka 273- 232 B.C.E. • Trade routes brought it to China

  23. Buddhism • Holy Book • none • Holy Places • Shrines • 8 sacred sites • All associated with the Buddha • 4 locations of miracles • Landscape Impact • Pagodas • Contain relic of Buddha • Not designed for congregational worship • Calendar • Holidays • Buddha's birth, enlightenment, and death • Same day for Theravada monks • Different for others

  24. Other Universalizing Religions • Baha’i • 7 million adherents • Origin • Grew out of Babi faith • Founder: Siyyid ‘Ali Muhammad • Shiraz, Iran • 1844 C.E. • Doctrine • Believe that one of Bab’s disciples was a prophet of God • Function: to overcome disunity in religions and establish a universal faith • House of Worship • Temples on every continent • Calendar • Established by Bab • 19 months with 19 days, 4 “extra” • Diffusion • Followers persecuted and exiled to Iraq

  25. Sikhism • One of the smaller universalizing religions • 25 million adherents • Founded in the late 15th century in present day Pakistan • Lahore • Follows teachings of Guru Nanak • Chief religious prophet • God revealed himself to Nanak • One Creator, people have capacity for improvement on earth • Sikhs mean disciple in Hindi • Monotheistic • Syncretic religion? • Blend of Hinduism and Islam practices and beliefs

  26. Diffusion of Sikhism • Diffused outward from its origin in Pakistan, particularly towards northern India • Sikhs have a global diaspora today and are especially prominent in the U.S., Canada, the UK, former British colonies of East Africa, and Australia • High concentration of Sikhs exist in Punjab region • Straddles Northwestern India and Northern Pakistan

  27. Cultural Landscapes • Holiest Site: • The Golden Temple • In the Punjab region • Holy Book: • Guru Granth Sahib contains the teaching of all its prophets, called gurus