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Inter-Act, 13 th Edition. Chapter 7 Listening. Chapter Objectives. Discuss the three challenges that make it difficult for us to effectively listen List and describe the five steps in the active listening process

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Inter-Act, 13th Edition

Chapter 7


Chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

  • Discuss the three challenges that make it difficult for us to effectively listen

  • List and describe the five steps in the active listening process

  • Discuss the guidelines and skills that can help you improve your ability to listen

Discussion question
Discussion Question:

  • Based on your work and life experience, what are some of the reasons why you and others have listened poorly?

Listening makes up 42-60% of our communication.





Class activity
Class Activity

  • A common complaint from women is that men don’t listen well…

Challenges to effective listening
Challenges to effective listening

  • Personal and cultural styles of listening

  • Listening Apprehension

  • Dual processes in listening

Personal cultural styles of listening
Personal & Cultural Styles of Listening

  • Content-oriented: prefer to focus on facts and evidence

    • People-oriented: prefer to focus on conversational partners and their feelings

  • Action-oriented: prefer to focus on point speaker is trying to make

  • Time-oriented: prefer brief and swift conversations

  • Listening apprehension
    Listening Apprehension

    • Fear of misinterpretation

    • Fear of the psychological affect of the message

    Dual processes in listening
    Dual Processes in Listening

    • Passive listening: effortless, thoughtless, and habitual process

    • Active listening: skillful, intentional, deliberate, and conscious process

    The active listening process
    The Active Listening Process

    The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages

    • Attending

    • Understanding

    • Remembering

    • Critically Evaluating

    • Responding


    The process of willfully striving to perceive selected sounds that are being heard

    • Get physically and mentally ready to listen.

    • Make the shift from speaker to listener a complete one.

    • Resist tuning out.

    • Avoid interrupting.


    Process of accurately decoding a message so that you share its meaning with the speaker

    • Identify the speaker’s purpose and key points.

    • Observe nonverbal cues.

    • Ask clarifying questions.

    • Paraphrase what you heard.

    Paraphrase the following statements to reflect both the thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    • “I really like communication, but what could I do with a major in this field?”

    • “I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast.”

    • “You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can’t afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive to D.C. this weekend.”

    Remembering thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    Process of moving information from short-term memory to long-term memory

    Reasons we fail to remember

    Using repetition to remember

    • We filter out messages

    • We listen anxiously or passively

    • We remember “easy” or “desirable” messages

    • We forget the middle

      • Primacy effect

      • Recency effect

    • Repeat two, three, four times

    • Create mnemonics

    • Take notes

    Mnemonics thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    Any artificial technique used as a memory aid

    For example: take the first letter of a list you are trying to remember and create a word

    HOMES (the five Great Lakes)

    Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior

    Note taking
    Note Taking thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    • Take notes when you

    • are listening to

    • complex

    • information.

    • Brief outline:

      • Overall idea

      • Main points

      • Key developmental material

    Critically evaluating information
    Critically Evaluating thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:Information

    • Separate facts from inferences

      • Fact – a verifiable statement

      • Inference – a conclusion drawn from facts

    • Probe for information

    Responding thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    Process of providing feedback to your partner’s message

    • Back-channel cues: verbal and nonverbal signals demonstrating listener response to the speaker

    • Reply when message is complete

    • Respond to the previous message before changing the subject

    Class activity1
    Class Activity thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    • Scenarios?

    • Form groups of 3

      • Listener

      • Story Teller

      • Observer

        • Takes notes on verbal/nonverbal messages, examples of paraphrasing/questioning

    • What factors led to listening difficulties? What behaviors demonstrated effective listening?

    Digital communication literacy
    Digital Communication Literacy thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    • Extra effort is required to understand digital messages.

    • Critically evaluate social media messages to separate facts from inferences.

    • Recognize underlying motives, values, ideologies.

    • Digital messages should not completely replace face-to-face communication.

    Homework thoughts and feelings of the person speaking:

    • Create a communication improvement plan for developing/improving on a particular listening skill (questioning or paraphrasing) or an aspect of the listening process (attending, understanding, remembering, critically evaluating, and responding).

    • Be sure to also incorporate your class activity to illustrate your current assessment of your listening skills.

    • Check your assignment rubric and past assignment evaluations for additional support.