Cell Structure Part 2: Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cell Structure Part 2: Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells) PowerPoint Presentation
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Cell Structure Part 2: Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells)
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Cell Structure Part 2: Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells)

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  1. Cell Structure Part 2: Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells) Honors Biology

  2. Eukaryotic Cells • Divided into compartments • Unicellular or Multicellular • Organelles→ structures that have a specific function in the cell (including the nucleus) • Cytoplasm→ region between nucleus and plasma membrane that surrounds organelles • Filled with cytosol (watery-jelly part) and organelles • Contains centrioles, which help with cell division reproduction

  3. Types of Eukaryotic Cells • Animals • Plants • Fungi • Protists

  4. Types of Eukaryotes • Unicellular (Protozoa) • Protists • Paramecium, amoebae • Fungi • Yeast • Multicellular (Metazoa) • Fungi • Plants • Animals • Reproduction for ALL eukaryotes may be asexual or sexual

  5. ORGANELLES Very small Perform various functions for cell Found in the cytoplasm May or may not be membrane-bound

  6. Ribosome (attached) Nucleolus Ribosome (free) BASIC ANIMAL CELL ORGANELLES Nucleus Cell Membrane Nuclear envelope Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Golgi apparatus

  7. BASIC PLANT CELL ORGANELLES

  8. Organelle List

  9. Outside of cell Carbohydrate chains Proteins Cell membrane Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Protein channel Lipid bilayer CELL OR PLASMA MEMBRANE STRUCTURE • Made of double layer (bilayer) of: • phospholipidsand proteins • Surrounds outside of ALL cells FUNCTION (JOB) • Controls what enters or leaves the cell • Security guard or a fence FOUND: • ALL CELLS

  10. CYTOPLASM OF A CELL • STRUCTURE • Jelly-like substance • Mostly water • aqueous solution • FUNCTION (JOB) • Provides a solution for chemical reactions to take place in • Holds organelles in place • *Ocean • FOUND: • ALL CELLS cytoplasm

  11. NUCLEUS • STRUCTURE • Contains the DNA (genetic information) in chromosomes • Bounded by a nuclear envelope (membrane) with pores • Usually the largest organelle • FUNCTION (JOB) • Controls the normal activities of the cell • Main Office • FOUND: • All eukaryotic cells

  12. NUCLEAR ENVELOPE • Double membrane surrounding nucleus • Also called nuclear membrane • Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus • Connected to the rough ER Nuclear pores

  13. INSIDE THE NUCLEUS The genetic material (DNA) is found DNA is spread out And appears as CHROMATINin non-dividing cells (NOT TIGHTLY COILED) DNA is condensed & wrapped around proteins forming as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells (TIGHTLY COILED)

  14. NUCLEOLUS STRUCTURE • Inside nucleus • Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli • Disappears when cell divides FUNCTION (JOB) • Makes ribosomes (ribosomal subunits) Found: • All Eukaryotic Cells

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • Folded membranes • Moves supplies from one part of the cell to another • This helps maintain homeostasis • Detoxifies the cell • Two types of ER…

  16. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (RER) STRUCTURE • Has ribosomeson its surface FUNCTION (JOB) • Makes more membrane • Modifies and helps make proteins that are being transported out FOUND: • Plant and animal cells

  17. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (SER) STRUCTURE • Has NO ribosomeson its surface • Usually attached to RER FUNCTION (JOB) • Makes lipids (membranes) • Regulates calcium (muscles) • Destroys toxins (Liver) FOUND: Plant and animal cells

  18. Golgi Apparatus • Receives vesicles (of protein) from the ER • Processes, sorts, and ships proteins • NOTinterconnected • One side = receives vesicles • One side = ships to plasma membrane or become lysosomes • Looks like a flattened stack of pancakes • UPS/Fedex warehouse  packing center

  19. GOLGI APPARATUS (BODIES) STRUCTURE • Stacks of flat sacs • Looks like pancakes with syrup drips • “Pankcakes” NOT connected FUNCTION (JOB) • Modify • Sort • Package • molecules from ER for storage OR transport in transport vesicles FOUND: • Plant and animal cells Transport vesicle “syrup bubble”

  20. Lysosomes • Digestive/recycling center of the cell • Sac of digestive enzymes • Produced by the Rough ER and Golgi • Breaks down “bad” organelles Like a garbage disposal!

  21. 1 µm Nucleus Lysosome Hydrolytic enzymes digest food particles Food vacuole fuses with lysosome Lysosome contains active hydrolytic enzymes Digestive enzymes Lysosome Plasma membrane Digestion Food vacuole (a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food LYSOSOMES STRUCTURE • They have a low pH • Containdigestive enzymes FUNCTION (JOB) • Break down food, bacteria & old cell parts • Lyse & release enzymes to break down/recycle cell parts • Programmed forcell death (APOPTOSIS) • Think= “Lysol” cleaner Found: Animal cells only

  22. CYTOSKELETON STRUCTURE • Made of proteins • Microfilaments-threadlike • Intermediate Filaments • Microtubules-tubelike FUNCTION (JOB) • Network of fibers that help cell maintain cell shape • Also help move organelles around • Structural support for animal cells FOUND: • ALL CELLS

  23. CILIA & FLAGELLA FUNCTION (JOB) of Flagella • Moves WHOLE cells FUNCTION (JOB) of Cilia • Moves fluids or small particles acrosscell surface FOUND: • Animal cells and some plants • Flagella (prokaryotes)

  24. CILIA & FLAGELLA STRUCTURE • Made of protein tubes called microtubules Cilia • Shorter • more numerous Flagella • Longer • fewer (usually 1-3)

  25. Vacuoles • Storage “containers” • Store various substances • The “closet” of the cell STRUCTURE AND FOUND: • In animals = small and numerous • In plants = one large central vacuole FUNCTION: • Stores mostly water but also waste and nutrients • Helps with the structure of a plant cell

  26. Energy Organelles • Two “energy” organelles • Chloroplasts • Mitochondria • Both contain their own DNA

  27. Energy Organelles • Chloroplast • Site of Photosynthesis • Converts energy from the sun into chemical energy • Only in Plants and some Protists • Mitochondria • Site of Cellular Respiration  makesATP • ATP required for cell activity!!!! • ENERGY!! Powerhouse of the cell • Found in almost all eukaryotic cells • Two membranes  inner membrane is folded up to increase the surface area

  28. MITOCHONDRION(PLURAL = MITOCHONDRIA) STRUCTURE • Bean shape • DOUBLE membrane • Has its own DNA • Folded inner membrane called CRISTAE (increases surface areafor more chemical reactions) • Interior called MATRIX

  29. MITOCHONDRION (CON’T) FUNCTION (JOB) • “Powerhouse” of cell • Makes cellular energy (ATP) • More active cells like muscle cells have MORE mitochondria • Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION (burning glucose)

  30. INTERESTING FACT --- • Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization Therefore … • You inherit your mitochondria from your mother!

  31. CHLOROPLASTS STRUCTURE • Bean shape • DOUBLE membrane • Sacs (“coins”) called Thylakoids • Thylakoids stack called Granum (pl. =grana) • Stroma – gel in middle • Has its own DNA FUNCTION (JOB) • Found only in autotrophs • Carries out photosynthesis FOUND: • PLANT CELLS

  32. STRUCTURE • Found in: • plants • Made of cellulose • Fungi • Made of chitin • Bacteria • Made of peptidoglycan • FUNCTION (JOB) • Protect • Maintain shape CELL WALL Cell wall

  33. Cell Structures – Plant Cells ONLY • Cell Wall • Rigid, tough • Made of cellulose • LargeCentralVacuole • Fills with water and increases turgor pressure (pressure in a cell) • Chloroplasts

  34. RIBOSOMES STRUCTURE • Made of PROTEINS and rRNA FUNCTION (JOB) • Make proteins • amino acids to make proteins • Process calledTRANSLATION FOUND: ALL CELLS 

  35. RIBOSOMES (CON’T) Can be attached to Rough ER (proteins made exit cell) OR Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm (proteins made stay INSIDE cell)

  36. CENTRIOLES STRUCTURE • Found only in animalcells • Pairedstructures near nucleus (“t” shape”) • Made of microtubules FUNCTION (JOB) • Appear during cell division • Help to pull chromosome pairs apart to opposite ends of the cell

  37. CENTRIOLES & THE MITOTIC SPINDLE **Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin)

  38. NOW…LET’S PRACTICE 

  39. Animals vs. Plants • Nucleus • Nucleolus • Ribosome • Smooth ER • Rough ER • Golgi • Mitochondria • Cell Membrane • Cytoplasm • Cytoskeleton • Vesicle • Centrosome • Smaller vacuoles • Centrioles • Flagella and cilia • Lysosomes • Cell wall • Large central • vacuole • Chloroplasts