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1. Which of the following is incorrect. A Resting stem cells are resistant to the toxic effects of chemotherapy drugs B Stem cells give rise to all blood cells C Stem cells are capable of self-renewal D Stem cells are large multinucleated cells. 2.

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which of the following is incorrect

1

Which of the following is incorrect.
  • A Resting stem cells are resistant to the toxic effects of chemotherapy drugs
  • B Stem cells give rise to all blood cells
  • C Stem cells are capable of self-renewal
  • D Stem cells are large multinucleated cells
which of the following is true of neutrophils

2

Which of the following is true of neutrophils?
  • A They circulate for 8 days
  • B They have round nuclei and granular cytoplasm
  • C In blood vessels they are equally distributed between the marginal pool and the circulating pool in dogs
  • D They synthesise globulins
erythropoiesis is stimulated by
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by
  • A GM-CSF
  • B Thrombopoietin
  • C Erythropoietin
  • D Deep sea diving
which is true of reticulocytes

6

Which is true of Reticulocytes?
  • A They are immature red cells which stain blue-pink on Diff-Quick
  • B Released in large numbers following excitement
  • C smaller than normal red cells
  • D contain small round nuclei
which of the following is incorrect1

7

Which of the following is incorrect
  • A Bilirubin may be found in normal cat urine
  • B Urobilinogen may be found in normal cat urine
  • C Bilirubin increases in horses following anorexia
  • D Bilirubin is found in urine in animals with biliary obstruction
slide6

9

Which film comment is correct?

A spherocytes ++

B hypochromic cells

C marked polychromasia

D Babesia organisms seen

slide7

10

Which film comment is correct?

A Spherocytes ++

B hypochromic cells

C Schistocytes

D Babesia organisms seen

slide8

11

These abnormal red cells are seen in

A regenerative anaemia

B iron deficiency anaemia

C vascular neoplasia eg

haemangiosarcoma

D aged samples

which is the most likely differential

12

Which is the most likely differential ?
  • A Hypoadrenocorticoid (Addisons)crisis
  • B Acute internal haemorrhage from abdominal mass (?tumour)
  • C Aplastic anaemia
  • D Acute cardiac failure
why is dog so white with pcv of 24

13

Why is dog so white with PCV of 24%?
  • A PCV performed incorrectly
  • B Dog has cardiac failure
  • C Dog is acutely bleeding/hypovlaemic so reduced peripheral perfusion + PCV does not reflect severity of blood loss in acute haemorrhage
  • E Clinician is colourblind
what would you do next

14

What would you do next?
  • A Urine analysis
  • B Serum iron
  • C Xrays + Ultrasound abdo
  • D go down the pub
slide14

9 year old Bull Terrier with maelena

55

5

Plasma protein 51 g/l 60 - 80

Red cells are hypochromic and microcytic

2+ polychromasia

this anaemia is

15

This anaemia is:
  • A microcytic hypochromic
  • B microcytic hyperchromic
  • D normocytic normochronic
  • E macrocytic normochromic
9 yr old bull terrier with maelena

16

9 yr old Bull Terrier with maelena

What does the pattern of low PCV and low PP suggest?

  • A dehydration
  • B haemorrhage
  • C non-regenerative anaemia
  • D haemolytic anaemia
what is the most common cause of low mcv

17

What is the most common cause of low MCV
  • A Aged sample
  • B regenerative anaemia
  • C iron deficiency anaemia
  • D beetroot ingestion
slide18

9 yr old Bull Terrier with maelena

Which test would you perform next?

18

  • A Urine/faecal analysis
  • B Abdominal radiography
  • C Coombs test
  • D Bone marrow aspirate
9 yr old bull terrier with maelena1
9 yr old Bull Terrier with maelena
  • Urine analysis - no haematuria
  • Faecal analysis - no parasites
  • Ultrasound exam - solitary mass in intestine
slide20

19

Ultrasound revealed a solitary SI mass. Would you:

  • A recommend euthanasia
  • B go down the pub
  • C dispense iron tablets and go down the pub
  • D give a blood transfusion followed by ex-lap and surgically remove the mass
3 yr old irish setter
3 yr old Irish Setter
  • Became unwell over last 7 - 10 days
  • Depressed,lethargic, exercise intolerance
  • Pale mucus membranes
  • Not jaundiced
  • T 40.2oC, P 135, R 20
  • Splenomegaly
increased rcdw signifies

1

Increased RCDW signifies
  • A Variation in haemoglobin concentration
  • B numerous nucleated red cells
  • C Increased red cell size
  • D variation in red cells size due to large and/or small red cells
slide23

3 year old F Irish Setter

  • Polychromasia 3+
  • Anisocytosis 2+
  • Spherocytes 3+
  • Reticulocytes 26%
  • Absolute retic count

= 26 x 1.22 x 10 = 317 x 109/l

likely diagnosis
Likely Diagnosis?

3

  • A IMHA
  • B Onion toxicity
  • C Babesia canis
  • D microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, likely secondary to a tumour
slide25

4 yr old local Holstein 3 weeks post-calving

Depression, jaundice and haemoglobinuria

Pl pr 80 g/l 60 - 80

film comment
Film comment

Anisocytosis 3+

Polychromasia 2+

Basophilic stippling

Howell-Jolly bodies

what is the most likely cause of the anaemia

4

What is the most likely cause of the anaemia
  • A Babesia bovis
  • B Hypophosphataemia
  • C Bladder neoplasia / haemorrhage
  • D Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia
slide28

7 yr Welsh Bay Gelding

Weight loss, anaemia, jaundice

Pl pr 78 g/l 60 - 80

Fibrinogen 3 g/l 2 - 4.5

red cell morphology
Red cell morphology
  • 2+ Anisocytosis
  • No polychromasia
  • A few Howell-Jolly bodies
  • A few nucleated red cells
is the anaemia

6

Is the anaemia
  • A Regenerative
  • B Non-regenerative
  • C Not possible to say
is the anaemia most likely due to

7

Is the anaemia most likely due to
  • A Haemorrhage
  • B Haemolysis
  • C Primary bone marrow disease
  • D renal failure
what would you do next1

8

What would you do next?
  • A Slide agglutination test and Coombs test
  • B Bone marrow aspirate
  • C faecal occult blood
  • D abdominal radiography
4 month old gsd with skin problem
4 month old GSD with skin problem
  • red cells 5.16 x 1012/l 5.5 - 8.5
  • Hb 12.20 g/dl 12.0 - 18.0
  • PCV 0.35 l/l 0.37 - 0.55
  • MCV 68.7 fl 59.0 - 77.0
  • MCH 23.6pg 20 - 26
  • MCHC 34.5 g/dl 30 - 36
  • Pl pr 57 g/l 60 - 80
what is going on
What is going on?
  • Chronic GI haemorrhage due to parasitism
  • Acute GI haemorrhage
  • Hypothyroid
  • All normal for a dog of this age
4 month old gsd
4 month old GSD
  • White cells 17.8 x 109/l 6.0 - 15.0
  • neutrophils 10.5 x 109/l 2.5 - 12.5
  • bands 0 x 109/l 0.0 - 0.4
  • Lymphs 5.8 x 109/l 0.5 - 4.8
  • monocytes 0.7 x 109/l < 0.8
  • eosinophils 0.7 x 109/l 0.05 - 0.8
4 month old gsd1
4 month old GSD
  • Biochemistry
  • Total protein 57.0 g/l 60 - 80
  • Urea 6.1 mmol/l 2.5 - 6.7
  • Creatinine 1.0.0 umol/l 20 - 150
  • ALT 10 IU/L 5.0 - 60.0
  • ALP 376 IU/L < 130
  • Gamma GT 5.0 IU/L 0.1 - 9.0
  • Phosphorus 3.48 mmol/l 0.8 - 1.6
  • Calcium 3.35 mmol/l 2.40 - 2.90
3 yr entire male labrador
3 yr entire male labrador
  • Scavenged in dustbin 2 days previously
  • Well until yesterday
  • Now lethargic / depressed
  • Clinical exam pale / ?icteric
  • Mild splenomegaly
  • Dark urine noted by owner
3 yr old greedy labrador
3 yr old greedy Labrador
  • red cells 3.6 x 1012/l 5.5 - 8.5
  • haemoglobin 6.9 g/dl 12.0 - 18.0
  • PCV 0.20 l/l 0.37 - 0.55
  • MCV 67.2 fl 60 - 77
  • MCH 23.7 pg 19.5 – 24.5
  • MCHC 32.3 g/dl 32 – 36
  • Pl pr 78 g/l 60 - 80
film exam
Film exam
  • Mild anisocytosis
  • Mild polychromasia
  • Clear areas on one side of cell
  • NMB smear made
what is the cause of the anaemia
What is the cause of the anaemia

A Gi haemorrhage

B AIHA

C Zinc toxicity

D Onion toxicity

E Copper toxicity

3 yr old g ret 3 weeks depression and weight loss and more recently pyrexia
3 yr Old G. Ret 3 weeks depression and weight loss and more recently pyrexia
  • Red cells 3.02 x 1012/l 5.5 - 8.5
  • Hb 7.3 g/dl 12.0 - 18.0
  • PCV 0.24 l/l 0.32 - 0.55
  • MCV 66 fl 60 - 77
  • MCH 23 pg 19.5 – 24.5
  • MCHC 36 g/dl 32 - 27
  • Pl Pr 72 g/l 60 - 80

Red cells normocytic normochromic

comments so far

9

Comments so far?
  • A Severe regenerative anaemia
  • B Moderate non-regenerative anaemia ? Chronic dx or 10 bone marrow dx
  • C Suggestive of recent blood loss
white cells and platelets
White cells and platelets
  • white cells 7.12 x 109/l 6.0 - 15.0
  • neutrophils 1.2 x 109/l 0.8 - 4.8
  • lymphocytes 5.3 x 109/l 1 – 4.8
  • monocytes 0.1 x 109/l 0.2 – 1.5
  • eosinophils 0 x 109/l 0.05 - 0.8
  • platelets 90 x 109/l 150 - 450
now most likely

10

Now most likely
  • A Anaemia of chronic dx
  • B 10 bone marrow dx
  • C IMHA with concurrent IMTP
  • D acute blood loss
blood film exam
Blood film exam
  • Atypical lymphocytes
  • Irreg nuclei
  • Some nucleoli
  • Thrombocytopenia
what is at the top of your differential list

12

What is at the top of your differential list?
  • A Plasma cell myeloma
  • B Acute lymphoid leukaemia
  • C Aplastic anaemia
  • D myelofibrosis
which test would be most useful

13

Which test would be most useful?
  • A Epo assay
  • B Ultrasound spleen
  • C Bone marrow aspirate
  • D Lymph node aspirate
8 yr mn boxer 1 cm cutaneous hairless mass
8 yr Mn Boxer1 cm cutaneous hairless mass

1

  • A excise and send for histopath
  • B advise revisit in 6 weeks
  • C dispense Synulox
  • D take a fine needle aspirate
what would you use to take a fine needle aspirate

2

What would you use to take a fine needle aspirate?
  • A 18 ga needle
  • B Trucut needle
  • C 23 ga needle
  • D Jamshidi needle
which is true of sampling thoracic masses

3

Which is true of sampling thoracic masses
  • A Large mediastinal masses can be aspirated if the no aerated lung in penetrated
  • B if the needle is long enough, any mass may be sampled safely
  • C Needle aspiration of lung/chest masses is highly risky and should not be performed
  • D A large bore 14 - 18 ga needle should be used
which statement is incorrect

4

Which statement is incorrect
  • A adding a coverslip increased clarity when examining smears
  • B The condenser should be positioned low for cytology / haematology film exam
  • C Diff-Quick is a suitable stain for cytology
  • D Haematology is my favourite subject
in normal cows the predominant cell type is

5

In normal cows the predominant cell type is
  • A lymphocyte
  • B neutrophil
  • C monocyte
  • D eosinophil
which of the following is not a toxic change seen in neutrophils

6

Which of the following is not a toxic change seen in neutrophils
  • A basophilic cytoplasm
  • B foamy cytoplasm
  • C hypersegmented nuclei
  • D Dohle inclusions
in early acute inflammation the neutrophilia results from

7

In early acute inflammation the neutrophilia results from
  • A prolonged neutrophil circulation time
  • B release of neutrophils form the marginating pool to the circulating pool
  • C release of neutrophils from the storage/maturation pool
  • D shift of neutrophils from the tissues into the circulation
which is the most likely cause of these white cell abnormalities

8

Which is the most likely cause of these white cell abnormalities
  • A stress leucogram
  • B acute inflammatory response
  • C physiological / adrenaline induced neutrophilia
  • D chronic granulocytic leukaemia
what is the likely cause of the neutropenia

9

What is the likely cause of the neutropenia
  • A Increased demand due a focus of severe infection
  • B Aplastic anaemia eg due to oestrogen toxicity
  • C Reduced neutrophil production due to leukaemic infiltrate
  • D Blood loss
which describes the stress leucogram

10

Which describes the stress leucogram
  • A neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, eosinopenia
  • B neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytopenia, lymphopenia
  • C neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytopenia, eosinophilia
  • D neutropenia, lymphocytosis, eosinopenia, monocytosis
1 which is not a potential cause of increased pcv
1 Which is not a potential cause of increased PCV
  • A Renal tumour
  • B Chronic renal failure
  • C Severe pulmonary dx
  • D Dehydration
  • E Polycythaemia rubra vera
2 which test would not be useful in establishing the cause of polycythaemia
2 Which test would not be useful in establishing the cause of polycythaemia
  • A Serum proteins
  • B Ultrasound of kidneys
  • C Bone marrow aspirate
  • D Chest X ray
  • E EPO assay
3 which of the following is true of immunosuppressive therapy
3 Which of the following is true of immunosuppressive therapy?
  • A Cyclosporin blocks T cell activation and does not suppress neutrophil production
  • B Hi dose prednisolone can be used with minimal side effects in dogs
  • C Azathioprine is a suitable drug for IMHA in cats
  • D Danazol works by reducing anti-body production
  • E Human IG is a cheap alternative to cyclophosphamide
4 which is true of feline blood groups
4Which is true of feline blood groups?
  • A Most DSH cats are type B
  • B Most BSH cats are type A
  • C All type A cats have hi titres of anti-B antibody
  • D All type B cats have hi titres of anti-A antibody
  • E All type AB cats have low titres of anti-A antibody
5 which statement is true of cross matching
5 Which statement is true of Cross matching
  • A always do prior to any transfusion in dogs
  • B In the major cross match donor cells are mixed with recipient serum
  • C No agglutination or haemolysis means the donor and recipient are the same blood type
  • D Rouleaux formation in a cross match is regarded a positive result
  • E A positive minor cross match is not significant
slide66
6 A dog with severe AIHA is deteriorating in spite of therapy. The PCV is now 8% and dog very weak. What would you give this dog?
  • A Whole blood
  • B Oxyglobin
  • C Packed red cells
  • D Fresh-frozen plasma
  • E Platelet-rich plasma
7 which is not present in fresh frozen plasma
7 Which is not present in fresh frozen plasma
  • A Albumin
  • B Vit K dependant factors
  • C Factor VIII
  • D Von Willebrands factor
  • E Platelets
9 which is true of blood groups in horses
9 Which is true of blood groups in horses
  • A Blood typing is not available in the UK
  • B Most TBs are Qa and Aa -ve
  • C Naturally occurring isoantibodies to Aa are common
  • D Foals of Aa -ve mares are at risk of developing NI
  • E Ka and Pa are the most immunogenic blood types
10 which would be best for a very anaemic foal with ni
10 Which would be best for a very anaemic foal with NI
  • A sire’s whole blood
  • B mare’s whole blood
  • C sire’s washed red cells
  • D mare’s washed red cells
  • E mare’s plasma
1 which of the following is not involved in primary haemostasis
1. Which of the following is not involved in primary haemostasis
  • A fibrinogen
  • B calcium
  • C platelets
  • D vWF
2 which factors are vitamin k dependant
2. Which factors are Vitamin K dependant
  • A II, V, IX, X
  • B II, VII, IX, X
  • C V, VII, IX, X
  • D II, VIII, IX, X
3 which signs in unlikely in a disorder of 2ndry haemostasis
3. Which signs in unlikely in a disorder of 2ndry haemostasis
  • A haematoma
  • B haemarthrosis
  • C petechial haemorrhage
  • D haemothorax
4 which of the following would be unaltered in an animal with a 1 0 haemostatic disorder
4. Which of the following would be unaltered in an animal with a 10 haemostatic disorder
  • A Buccal mucosal bleeding time
  • B Clot retraction
  • C WBCT
  • D OSPT
slide74

5. You are presented with a dog with epistaxis. To attribute this to thrombocytopenia what is the maximum number of platelets you would see on a x100 field

A < 15

B < 3

C < 6

D < 30

6 which of the following deficiencies would not prolong ospt
6. Which of the following deficiencies would not prolong OSPT
  • A X deficiency
  • B VIII deficiency
  • C VII deficiency
  • D V deficiency
7 which of the following findings would not be consistent with immune mediated thrombocytopenia
7. Which of the following findings would not be consistent with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
  • A Marked thrombocytopenia
  • B regenerative anaemia
  • C neutropenia
  • D Large platelets seen in blood film
slide77

3 month old G Ret presents with dyspnoea due to pleural effusion and a large haematoma over the elbow. In the previous history there had been bleeding associated with teething

  • Platelet count 110 x 109/l (200 - 500)
  • OSPT 10 secs, (control 9 seconds)
  • APTT 210 seconds (control 18 seconds)
  • FDPs negative
8 what is the most likely cause of this dog s clinical signs
8. What is the most likely cause of this dog’s clinical signs
  • A Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
  • B Warfarin poisoning
  • C Haemophilia A
  • D Von Willebrands disease

Mild thrombocytopenia likely d/t blood loss

10 yr male lab
10 yr male Lab
  • Appeared normal till last night when began bleeding profusely from both nostrils. Bleeding will not stop and dog now collapsed.
  • Clin exam - petechiae on gums, hypothermic, tachycardic and vv pale
  • Cranial abdominal mass palpable
10 yr male lab1
10 yr male lab
  • PCV 24% (36 - 55)
  • Platelets 48 x 109/l (200 - 500)
  • APTT 72 seconds (15 - 25)
  • OSPT 32 seconds (7 - 10)
  • FDP +
  • Fibrinogen 1 g/l (2 - 4)
9 what is the cause of the epistaxis
9. What is the cause of the epistaxis
  • A nasal tumour
  • B warfarin poisoning
  • C immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
  • D DIC
10 yr male doberman
10 yr male Doberman

Severeepistaxis 18 hours duration

No previous spontaneous bleeding, BUT bled ++ at tooth extraction 2 months previously

No history of nasal disease

Dog depressed, weak and tachycardic

10 yr old doberman
10 yr old Doberman
  • Platelet count 133 x 109/l (200 - 500)
  • WBCT 4 mins (< 6)
  • OSPT 9 seconds (control 8 seconds)
  • APTT 20 seconds (control 16 secs)
  • Clot retraction poor
10 what is the most likely cause of the bleeding
10 What is the most likely cause of the bleeding
  • A nasal tumour
  • B Factor VIII deficiency
  • C von Willebrands disease
  • D DIC
1 artefacts occur in old urine which would not occur
1. Artefacts occur in “old“ urine Which would not occur?
  • A crystals form
  • B casts break down
  • C pH decreases
  • D red cell lyse
2 hyposthenuric urine would not occur in which of these
2. Hyposthenuric urine would not occur in which of these?
  • A diabetes insipidus
  • B Hypercalcaemia
  • C Cushings syndrome
  • D Chronic renal failure
9 year old dsh with pd pu ascites
9 year old DSH with PD/PU, ascites
  • Ascitic fluid - true transudate
  • Urine analysis Sediment exam
    • SG 1.012 hyaline casts
    • Protein 3+ RBC < 5 / hpf
    • pH 7 WBC < 5 / hpf
    • Blood -ve UPCR = 9
    • WBC -ve
    • Glucose -ve
biochemistry
Biochemistry
  • Albumin 12 g/l (25 - 40)
  • Globulin 33 g/l (20 - 45)
  • Cholesterol 10 mmol/l (2 - 5)
  • ALP 30 iu/l (< 60)
  • ALT 35 iu/l (< 65)
3 what is the cause of the proteinuria and low serum albumin
3. What is the cause of the proteinuria and low serum albumin
  • A Glomerular proteinuria
  • B Preglomerular proteinuria
  • C Post-glomerular proteinuria due to inflammation in LUT
  • D Post-glomerular proteinuria due to Fanconi syndrome
4 which of the following is not a potential cause glucosuria
4. Which of the following is not a potential cause glucosuria
  • A Diabetes melitus
  • B Stressed cat
  • C Fanconi syndrome
  • D IV fluids containing glucose
  • E None of the above (I.e. they all could cause glucosuria)
11 year old lab marked icterus vomiting
11 year old Labmarked icterus, vomiting
  • pH 7 Urine dark orange/yellow
  • Protein trace
  • Glucose -ve
  • Ketones -ve
  • Bilirubin +++++
  • Urobilinogen -ve
  • Blood/Hb -ve
5 what is the most likely cause of the icterus bilirubinuria
5. What is the most likely cause of the icterus/bilirubinuria
  • A IMHA
  • B Intra- hepatic disorder
  • C Complete post-hepatic biliary obstruction
  • D contamination of collection vessel with antiseptic
6 a urine sample has 2 blood hb sg 1 005 sediment no red cells seen animal s plasma is clear
6. A urine sample has 2+ Blood/Hb, SG 1.005, sediment no red cells seenAnimal’s plasma is clear
  • Which can be ruled out?
  • A haemoglobinuria due to intravascular haemolysis
  • B haematuria
  • C myoglobinuria
7 chronic haematuria in aged bitch diagnosis
7. Chronic haematuria in aged bitch. Diagnosis?
  • A cystitis
  • B urolithiasis
  • C Neoplasia
  • D Idiopathic renal H++
8 what are these crystals from a bitch s urine
8. What are these crystals from a bitch’s urine?

pH 8.5

Sediment

    • WBC 15 / hpf
    • Bacteria seen
    • RBC 30 / hpf
  • A oxalate
  • B struvite
  • C cystine
  • D urate
9 which of the following crystals are not seen in normal urine
9. Which of the following crystals are not seen in normal urine
  • A triple phosphate / struvite
  • B oxalate
  • C CaCO3
  • D Cystine
10 which is incorrect of casts
10. Which is incorrect of casts
  • A Formed in kidney tubules but not always seen in renal disease
  • B Hyaline casts may be seen in normal urine
  • C White cell casts may be seen in normal urine
  • D Red cells casts are fragile and break up rapidly
7 yr old bsh cat tachycardia dyspnoea muffled heart sounds pleural effusion
7 yr old BSH cat, tachycardia dyspnoea, muffled heart sounds, pleural effusion
  • Creamy pink fluid
  • Protein 32 g/l
  • Cell count 6500 / ul
  • Triglyceride 8 mmol/l (< 1.2)
3 which statement is correct
3 Which statement is correct
  • A The fluid is a exudate and likely due to bacterial infection
  • B the fluid is a transudate and likely due to congestive heart failure
  • C the fluid is chyle and most likely due to congestive heart failure
  • D the fluid is chyle and most likely due to traumatic rupture of the thoracic duct
3 yr dsh cat pyrexia v depression ascites
3 yr DSH cat pyrexia, V+ depression ascites
  • Fluid is turbid and yellow
  • Cell count 120,000/ul
  • Protein 45 g/l
4 what would you do next
4. What would you do next?
  • A Inject amoxycillin and send home on oral antibiotics
  • B ultrasound heart
  • C administer antibiotic and fluids to stabilise then perform ex lap
  • D perform urine analysis
8 yr g ret with pericardial effusion
8 yr G Ret with pericardial effusion
  • PCV 28%
  • Nucleated cell count 5600/ul
  • Protein 48 g/l
5 which is not a possible cause
5 Which is not a possible cause
  • A Coagulopathy
  • B Intra-pericardial neoplasia
  • C idiopathic benign haemorrhage
  • D congestive heart failure
6 which of the following is not a potential cause of modified transudate
6 Which of the following is not a potential cause of modified transudate
  • A protein loosing nephropathy
  • B congestive heart failure
  • C non-exfoliating neoplasia
  • D Liver disease
1 yr dsh rescue cat ascities pleura effusion wt loss
. 1 yr DSH rescue catascities, pleura effusion, wt loss
  • Protein 70 g/l
  • Albumin 22 g/l
  • Globulin 48 g/l
  • Cell count 6800 / ul
  • Mostly neutrophils
  • Some macrophages
7 what is the likely diagnosis
7. What is the likely diagnosis?
  • A Lymphocytic cholangitis
  • B Neoplasia
  • C FIP
  • D Congestive heart failure
5 yr gsd with pyrexia weight loss and generalised stiffness
5 yr GSD with pyrexia, weight loss and generalised stiffness
  • X rays show ST swelling
  • Joint taps from both carpii and hocks were similar
  • Viscosity reduced
  • Fluid turbid
  • Cell count 20,000 / ul
8 what is the likely diagnosis
8 What is the likely diagnosis
  • A septic arthritis seeding from septic focus elsewhere
  • B rheumatoid arthritis
  • C degenerative joint disease
  • D non-erosive IMPA
9 which is true of csf
9.Which is true of CSF
  • A Normal CSF is clear amber fluid
  • B ideally samples should be taken cranial to the site of the lesion
  • C Cell counts should be performed using a haematology analyser
  • D analysis should be performed quickly because cells degenerate fast
2 yr old bmd marked pyrexia neck pain csf analysis
2 yr old BMD marked pyrexia, neck pain. CSF analysis:
  • Slightly turbid
  • Cell count 1200 /ul
  • Protein 0.6 g/l
  • Cytology 85% neutrophils, 15% monocytes
  • No bacteria seen
10 what is the most likely diagnosis
10. What is the most likely diagnosis
  • A cervical disc protrusion
  • B bacterial meningitis
  • C spinal cord neoplasia
  • D steroid-responsive meningitis