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  1. Current Politics • Congress years 1947-1996 • Years of Competition 1996-present • Two Party System? • Two Half Parties? • Regional parties?

  2. Nehru Dynasty Jawaharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi PM 1947-64 PM 1966-77, 80-84

  3. Congress Dominates

  4. Indira Gandhi

  5. Congress (I)

  6. 1984 Golden Temple of Amritsar

  7. Congress after Indira Gandhi 1984-1989 1991-1996 Rajiv Gandhi P. V. N. Rao

  8. Years of Competition Factors • End of Nehru Dynasty • Economic reform • Corruption in Congress • Rise of regional, religious, caste-based parties

  9. 1996 Election • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 160 • Congress Party 136 • National Front 110 • National Front forms government

  10. 1998 Election • BJP 176 • Congress Party 140 • United Front 97

  11. 1998 BJP forms government National Democratic Alliance (15 parties) PM A. B. Vajpayee 1998-2004 Indian nuclear tests May 1998

  12. Congress Regroups Sonia Gandhi

  13. 1999 Election • BJP 182 • Congress Party 112 • BJP/NDA remains in power

  14. 2004 Election BJP/NDA “India Shining” vs. Congress/United Progressive Alliance (UPA) “It is a contest between the Congress…and the BJP that is systematically undermining the very essence of Indian civilization and destroying the very idea of India.” 2004 Election Manifesto

  15. 2004 Election • BJP 138 • Congress Party 145 (UPA 219) • Left Parties 56 UPA and Leftist parties form coalition PM Manmohan Singh

  16. 2009 Election • BJP 116 • Congress Party 206 UPA retains power PM Manmohan Singh

  17. Challenges and Developments • Two parties or Two Half Parties • Regional parties • Religion and Politics • Can Congress get beyond the Dynasty? • Celebrity and Corruption

  18. 1. Two parties or Two Half Parties? 272 (273) the magic number! Stability?

  19. 2. Regional Parties • 2009 LokSabha • 2 National parties • 1 semi-national party (CPI-M) with seats in four states • 39 Regional parties

  20. 3. Religion and Politics BJP History • Hindutva (Hindu Nationalism) • RSS (RashtriyaSwayamsevakSangh) • Vishwa Hindu Parishad (World Hindu Council)

  21. Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh • Babri Mosque 16th Century • Ayodhya Temple

  22. Babri Mosque, December 6, 1992

  23. Fallout of 1992 • 1992-1993 Riots • Gujarat 2002 • Liberhan Commission Report Narendra Modi L. K. Advani Chief Minister of Gujarat President BJP

  24. 4. Congress and the Nehru Dynasty

  25. 5. Celebrity and Corruption Jayalalitha of Tamil Nadu