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Politics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Politics Rooted in the Greek word “polis” meaning city or state n 1: social relations involving authority or power [syn: political relation ] 2: the study of government of states and other political units [syn: political science , government ]

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  • Rooted in the Greek word “polis” meaning city or state
  • n 1: social relations involving authority or power [syn: politicalrelation]
  • 2: the study of government of states and other political units [syn: political science, government]
  • 3: the profession devoted to governing and to political affairs
  • 4: the opinion you hold with respect to political questions [syn: political sympathies]
politics pre 1800
Politics – Pre 1800
  • Colonial politics focused on town and village
  • Most of population was rural (80%)
  • Colonies had legislatures and governors
  • Only men held office and typically only landowners
  • Most political division revolved around land usage and town v. colonial laws
  • Very little “politicking” done in these times
Colonial Governors had little control and served to keep status quo and interpret orders from Parliament
  • Most governors elected
  • Some were commissioned by Parliament
  • By 1770 England had pulled charters from many Colonial Governors
  • Political discord focused on English tax Law
  • First American “politicians” arrived during this period
Drafting of the Constitution created new political archetypes in America
  • Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Debate focused on states rights and economy
    • Law making power
    • Interpretation of Constitution
    • Constructionism
      • Strict
      • Loose
    • Assumption
    • National Bank
    • Executive Branch
    • Even Slavery
Result of Constitutional debate was the creation of National political figures
  • First American Celebrities
  • Feds and Anti-feds lobbied for support of one man
By 1800 few would acknowledge the existence of political parties, but the existence of politicians was indisputable
  • The Election of 1800 is a great example of politicking without political parties
  • From 1800-1824 – Democratic Republicans were the only Political party of any significance in the U.S.
  • That would change in 1820
  • Slavery and Missouri Compromise would dominate American politics
  • The election of 1824 “corrupt bargain”
  • JQ Adams secured the Presidency over despised Jackson by garnering support from Henry Clay in return for naming Clay Secretary of State
  • All called themselves Republicans
  • Old Hickory split Dem.-Reps and Republicans
  • Created the Democratic Party

Whig Party formed to opposed Jackson

  • Harrison and Taylor elected
  • Both die in office
  • Lincoln was a Whig before he unified the parties to form…
the republican party
The Republican Party
  • Unified against Southern Democrats
  • Made up of N. Democrats, Whigs, Free-soilers, Know Nothings, Liberty parties

Became the party of the South and of Reconstruction

  • Radical Reconstructionists opposed Lincoln’s plan
  • Lincoln assassinated in 1865
  • Andrew Johnson to weak to carry out Lincoln’s policies
  • Eventually impeached

Radical take control of Presidency in 1869 – Ulysses S. Grant

  • Grant not political enough to manage reconstructions
  • Carpetbaggers and scalawags dominate the south

Reconstruction fails

  • South and north irrevocably split
  • Country falls into economic funk
  • Blacks persecuted under Jim Crow
  • Series of weak presidents
  • Until 1901
  • Very active time economically, socially, and constitutionally
  • Roosevelt – “speak softly and carry a big stick”
  • Women’s rights
  • Height of Republican power
  • All other pre-WII Republicans will fall short of Roosevelt’s ideals
  • 1912 party split

Taft and Roosevelt have political and personal fallout

  • Progressive party supports Teddy in 1912
  • Republicans split vote
  • Most influential democrat in 80 years wins election
  • Bullmoose and Republicans Split vote in 1912
  • Quiet and determined Woodrow Wilson Elected 28th President
  • Most influential Democrat since Jackson
  • Oversaw numerous social reforms
  • Worked with Democratic Congress
    • Federal Trade Commission
    • Clayton Antitrust Act
    • Underwood Tariff
    • Federal Farm Loan Act
    • Federal Reserve System
    • Child Labor Laws
  • Age of Constitutional Change
  • Amendment s #16, #17, #18, #19 passed under Wilson
  • #16 – 1913 – Income Tax
  • #17 – 1913 – Direct Election of Senators
  • #18 – 1919 – Prohibition
  • #19 – 1919 - Women’s Suffrage

Overseas gains were common to America following Spanish American War

  • With Roosevelt America became an “imperial” power
  • Wilson was a reactionary who preferred to focus on domestic affairs
  • Isolationism v. Internationalism (Imperialism) became a huge political issue – still is.
  • Europe thrown into War – America Tested
  • Lusitania Sunk (remember the Maine)
  • German U-boat attacks force US into war on side of Allies

Paris 1919 – Wilson introduces 14 points

  • He strongly pushes for League of Nations
  • League created, but he is unable to convince an isolationist Congress to join
  • Dies in 1924 feeling a failure
  • His ideas and influence would create a new America and a stronger democratic party
  • 1920’s see a “return to normalcy” under Harding
  • Status quo and isolationism under Coolidge
  • And Economic downfall under Hoover
  • Financial crisis in 1929 would pose a new challenge to the President and Politics

FDR replaces Hoover in 1933

  • Time between election and inauguration hurt the country
  • 20th Amendment passed in 1933 – Lame Duck
  • Prohibition repealed – 21st Amendment - 1933
  • FDR famous 100 days passes more legislation than past 3 presidencies combined
  • FDR – New Deal policies and Fireside chats create 1st President Americans can relate to

Suffered from Polio

  • Wife Eleanor played key role in FDR administration
  • Like Wilson, FDR isolationist
  • Like Wilson, FDR challenged by European Conflict
  • Even as Germany invades France, FDR stays out of conflict
  • His instincts push for American preparation for war