Politics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Politics

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  1. Politics • Rooted in the Greek word “polis” meaning city or state • n 1: social relations involving authority or power [syn: politicalrelation] • 2: the study of government of states and other political units [syn: political science, government] • 3: the profession devoted to governing and to political affairs • 4: the opinion you hold with respect to political questions [syn: political sympathies]

  2. Politics – Pre 1800 • Colonial politics focused on town and village • Most of population was rural (80%) • Colonies had legislatures and governors • Only men held office and typically only landowners • Most political division revolved around land usage and town v. colonial laws • Very little “politicking” done in these times

  3. Colonial Governors had little control and served to keep status quo and interpret orders from Parliament • Most governors elected • Some were commissioned by Parliament • By 1770 England had pulled charters from many Colonial Governors • Political discord focused on English tax Law • First American “politicians” arrived during this period

  4. Drafting of the Constitution created new political archetypes in America • Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  5. Debate focused on states rights and economy • Law making power • Interpretation of Constitution • Constructionism • Strict • Loose • Assumption • National Bank • Executive Branch • Even Slavery

  6. Result of Constitutional debate was the creation of National political figures • First American Celebrities • Feds and Anti-feds lobbied for support of one man

  7. By 1800 few would acknowledge the existence of political parties, but the existence of politicians was indisputable • The Election of 1800 is a great example of politicking without political parties • From 1800-1824 – Democratic Republicans were the only Political party of any significance in the U.S. • That would change in 1820 • Slavery and Missouri Compromise would dominate American politics • The election of 1824 “corrupt bargain” • JQ Adams secured the Presidency over despised Jackson by garnering support from Henry Clay in return for naming Clay Secretary of State • All called themselves Republicans • Old Hickory split Dem.-Reps and Republicans • Created the Democratic Party

  8. Whig Party formed to opposed Jackson • Harrison and Taylor elected • Both die in office • Lincoln was a Whig before he unified the parties to form…

  9. The Republican Party • Unified against Southern Democrats • Made up of N. Democrats, Whigs, Free-soilers, Know Nothings, Liberty parties

  10. Became the party of the South and of Reconstruction • Radical Reconstructionists opposed Lincoln’s plan • Lincoln assassinated in 1865 • Andrew Johnson to weak to carry out Lincoln’s policies • Eventually impeached

  11. Radical take control of Presidency in 1869 – Ulysses S. Grant • Grant not political enough to manage reconstructions • Carpetbaggers and scalawags dominate the south

  12. Reconstruction fails • South and north irrevocably split • Country falls into economic funk • Blacks persecuted under Jim Crow • Series of weak presidents • Until 1901

  13. Progressivism • Very active time economically, socially, and constitutionally • Roosevelt – “speak softly and carry a big stick” • Women’s rights • Height of Republican power • All other pre-WII Republicans will fall short of Roosevelt’s ideals • 1912 party split

  14. Taft and Roosevelt have political and personal fallout • Progressive party supports Teddy in 1912 • Republicans split vote • Most influential democrat in 80 years wins election

  15. Progressivism • Bullmoose and Republicans Split vote in 1912 • Quiet and determined Woodrow Wilson Elected 28th President • Most influential Democrat since Jackson • Oversaw numerous social reforms • Worked with Democratic Congress • Federal Trade Commission • Clayton Antitrust Act • Underwood Tariff • Federal Farm Loan Act • Federal Reserve System • Child Labor Laws • Age of Constitutional Change • Amendment s #16, #17, #18, #19 passed under Wilson • #16 – 1913 – Income Tax • #17 – 1913 – Direct Election of Senators • #18 – 1919 – Prohibition • #19 – 1919 - Women’s Suffrage

  16. Overseas gains were common to America following Spanish American War • With Roosevelt America became an “imperial” power • Wilson was a reactionary who preferred to focus on domestic affairs • Isolationism v. Internationalism (Imperialism) became a huge political issue – still is. • Europe thrown into War – America Tested • Lusitania Sunk (remember the Maine) • German U-boat attacks force US into war on side of Allies

  17. Paris 1919 – Wilson introduces 14 points • He strongly pushes for League of Nations • League created, but he is unable to convince an isolationist Congress to join • Dies in 1924 feeling a failure • His ideas and influence would create a new America and a stronger democratic party • 1920’s see a “return to normalcy” under Harding • Status quo and isolationism under Coolidge • And Economic downfall under Hoover • Financial crisis in 1929 would pose a new challenge to the President and Politics

  18. FDR replaces Hoover in 1933 • Time between election and inauguration hurt the country • 20th Amendment passed in 1933 – Lame Duck • Prohibition repealed – 21st Amendment - 1933 • FDR famous 100 days passes more legislation than past 3 presidencies combined • FDR – New Deal policies and Fireside chats create 1st President Americans can relate to

  19. Suffered from Polio • Wife Eleanor played key role in FDR administration • Like Wilson, FDR isolationist • Like Wilson, FDR challenged by European Conflict • Even as Germany invades France, FDR stays out of conflict • His instincts push for American preparation for war