Politics AS & A2 Politics AQA 5151 / 6151
INDEX • 3 - What is Politics? • 9 - AS & A2 Modules • 10 - Studying Politics • 16 - Units of Work & Student Assignments • 22 - AS Module One : Elections • 62 - AS Module Two : Parties • 119 - AS Module Three : Government
What is Politics? …. 1 • Decisions taken by politicians affect the lives of everyone of us. • Our politicians are meant to represent the people, but how far do their decisions truly reflect the will of the voters? • Who really exercises power in our society? • Which ideas and values, whose ideas and values, shape the lives of ordinary people? • Is there anything that ordinary people can do to influence those who govern our country?
What is Politics? …. 2 • These are the questions that Politics asks. • Many people in Britain regard politics as something that doesn’t affect them, but they would be wrong! • Few people vote in local council elections, for example, yet most of our taxes are spent by local councilors. Gloucester spends more money in a year than the country of Mauritania!
What is Politics? …. 3 • The Government in London and the European Government in Brussels affect our lives through countless regulations that organise almost every aspect of our work and play. • People who understand the political system can make things work out to their own advantage. Knowledge is power, in business and in government.
What is Politics? …. 4 • People study Politics in order to understand how Britain and The United States of America are organised and how they function. • Students may go on to study Politics, International Relations, American Studies, European Studies, Business, Law, History or Sociology or Public Policy. • Equally, they might be looking to broaden their Science courses or to acquire the study skills in communication, ITC and research that colleges now demand from all students.
What is Politics? …. 5 • Politics is particularly relevant to careers in Business, Government, the Civil Service, the Police, Law, Charities, Pressure groups and Journalism. The course would also benefit those hoping to work in Brussels or America. • There is no specific entry requirement for Politics, other than that required for Sixth Form College entry. • None of our students will have studied the subject before.
What is Politics? …. 6 • Politics is taught by the following staff: • Module One : Mr. Dave Croft, Head of the Social Science Faculty • Module Two : Mr. Dennis Coughlan, Head of Key Stage Three • Module Three : Mr. Andrew Copestake, Head of History
AS & A2 Modules Year 12 Advanced Subsidiary: • Module 1: Elections: Winners and Losers • Module 2: Political Parties & Protest Groups • Module 3: How Britain is Governed Year 13 Advanced Level: • Module 4: Comparing the British Government to that of the USA • Module 5: Politics in the USA • Module 6: Today’s Political Issues
Studying Politics….1 • The course is divided up into Units of Work that are three weeks long. • There will be a unit test at the end of each Unit of Work. • These will include topics from each of the three modules, studied that year. • Students will be expected to pass at the level of their Conway score. • This helps students to build revision into their studies and raises their self-confidence.
Studying Politics….2 • The main class textbook is ‘British Politics’ by Bentley. • It is essential that students read the short sections listed for each Unit of Work. • The Activities set out for each Unit will help you to explore the Key ideas. • It is important to watch at least one serious Politics review program each week, to improve your general knowledge: Newsnight, Panorama, The Week in Politics, Channel Four News, Boulton or Frost on Sunday….
Studying Politics….3 • ‘Politics Review’ is a magazine produced specifically for A-Level Politics students. There will be copies in the Sixth-Form Library, or students may order their own. • Students should get into the habit of reading a quality newspaper: The Telegraph, The Guardian, The Independent or The Times. • Political Journals are also available in the library: The Economist, The New Statesman and Time Magazine from the US.
Studying Politics….4 These are some of the websites available on the Net: http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk [Best gateway] http://www.conservative.party.org.uk http://www.libdems.org.uk http://www.labour.org.uk http://www.Parliament.uk http://www.localgov.uk http://www.europa.eu.int/index-een.htm [EU]
Studying Politics….5 • http://www.Scotland.gov.uk [Scot. Parliament] • http://www.cymru.uk [Welsh Assembly] • http://www.n10-gov.uk/ • http://www.cabinet-office.gov.uk • http://www.nio.gov.uk [Northern Ireland] • http://www.cabinet-office.gov.uk/quangos/ • http://www.ombudsman.org.uk • http://www.servicefirst.gov.uk [Charters] • http://www. Sky.com or bbc.co.uk/
Studying Politics….6 • http:/www.historylearningsite.co.uk/gbpolitics.htm
Units of Work & Student Assignments ….1/2 Unit 1: Module 1: What is Politics? Module 2: Left and Right in Politics Module 3: The Constitution Unit 2: Module 1: Participation in a Democracy Module 2: The Ideas of the Labour Party Module 3: Our Representatives
Units of Work & Student Assignments ….3/4 Unit 3: Module 1: Elections, Referenda & Reform Module 2: Party Democracy and Labour. Module 3: The House of Commons Unit 4: Module 1: Political Culture & Social Class Module 2: The Ideas of the Conservatives Module 3: The Effectiveness of Parliament
Units of Work & Student Assignments ….5/6 Unit 5: Module 1: North/South , Home/Abroad Module 2: Party Democracy and Conservatives Module 3: Local Government Unit 6 Module 1: Age,Gender,Region & Ethnicity Module 2: Is Britain a Multi-Party State? Module 3: The European Union
Units of Work & Student Assignments ….7/8 Unit 7: Module 1: Party Loyalty and Choice Module 2: The Role of Pressure Groups Module 3: The Prime Minister & Cabinet Unit 8: Module 1: Influence of the Media & Polls Module 2: How do PG’s operate? Module 3: Ministers & the Civil Service
Units of Work & Student Assignments ..9 Unit 9: Module 1: Voting Context / General Model Module 2: Evaluating Pressure groups Module 3: Government & the Citizen We will aim to finish the course before Easter, to allow time for revision.
Units of Work and Student Assignments ..10 The Summer Term • After the AS examination we will begin work on the A2 course. • The A2 course looks particularly at the USA. We will use a wide variety of media to introduce life and politics in the US. • Group seminars, on topics chosen by the students, will be based on personal research. • We will also be organising visits to Parliament and to the Welsh regional assembly.
AS Module 1 A: Voting Culture & Behavior B: Electoral Systems
Typical Exam Questions:Section A: Voting Behavior Part a) consists of an 8 Mark Question that asks you to define terms such as: Volatility , Extremists , Apathy , Core Values Opinion Polls , Class-Based , political culture. Part b) consists of a 22 Mark Question that asks you to discuss evidence of voting patterns: - Voting behavior is influenced more by political factors than by social ones, like class, age or gender. - Has Britain a ‘political culture’ or several distinctive political ‘cultures’? - How far can Campaigns or the Media win elections? - How can turnout influence the outcome of an election?
Typical Exam Questions:Section B: Electoral Systems Part a) consists of an 8 Mark Question that asks you to define terms such as: Tactical Voting , Popular Vote , Threshold , Mandate , Proportional Representation , Referendum , Swing Part b) consists of a 22 Mark Question that asks you to discuss electoral systems or electoral reform: • Despite its unfairness, First-Past-The-Post voting produces strong and popular governments. Discuss. • How far do referendums make governments more responsive to popular opinion? • Assess the case in favor of electoral reform • Assess the advantages & disadvantages of PR
AS Module 1: Unit OneWhat is Politics? 1 Key Questions: • What is ‘political activity’? • How do the people participate in politics? • What are the different levels of participation?
AS Module 1: Unit OneWhat is Politics? 2 • Reading Ch1-P1 : What is politics? • Activity 1-1: What is politics? • Reading Ch1-P2: Political Activity • Activity 1-2: Political Activity • Reading Ch1-P3: Politics in the UK • Activity 1-3: The British political system • Activity 1-4: The Battle of Twyford Down
AS Module 1: Unit OneWhat is Politics? 3 Key Ideas:
AS Module 1 : Unit TwoParticipation in a Democracy 1 Key Questions: • What is a democracy? • What different kinds of democracy are there? • How does the British electoral system work?
AS Module 1 : Unit TwoParticipation in a Democracy 2 • Reading Ch7-P1: Democracy • Activity 7-1: Different forms of democracy • Activity 7-2: Evolution of democracy • Reading Ch7-P2: Political participation • Activity 7-3: Political participation in the UK • Reading Ch7-P3: The electoral system • Activity 7-4: Elections in the UK
AS Module 1 : Unit ThreeElections, Referenda & Reform 1 Key Questions: • How did the country vote in 1997? • How strong is the case for electoral reform? • What are the advantages & disadvantages of Majority & PR Systems of election? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the leading systems, proposed for electoral reform? [ Majority: First Past Post AV, SV, 2nd Ballot. PR: Party List, Closed List, STV, Quota. Hybrid: AMS, AV+/ Top Up] • What are the advantages & disadvantages of Referenda?
Module 1: Unit ThreeElections, Referenda & Reform 2 • Activity 7-5: 1997 Election campaign • Ch7-P4: Electoral Reform • Activity 7-7: Different Voting Systems • Activity 7-8: Electoral Reform • Reading Ch7-P3-7: Referendums • Activity 7-6: Referendums in the UK • Reference Activity 6-3: Voting in EU
AS Module 1: Unit FourPolitical Culture & Social Class 1 Key Questions: • What is the Political Culture, into which electors are socialised? • What socio-economic factors govern the composition of the electorate? • How far are patterns in voting behavior still aligned with social class?
AS Module 1 : Unit FourPolitical Culture and Social Class 2 • Reading Ch5-P1: Social context & • political culture • Activity 5-1: Socialisation & culture • Reading Ch5-P2-1: Social factors • Activity 5-2: A classless society? • Reading Ch9-P1-1/2: Structures Model • Activity 9-1: Social class & Voting
AS Module 1: Unit FourPolitical Culture & Social Class 5 Registrar General’s Classification 2001: • 1: Higher Managerial & Professional 1.1: Corporate Managers & Entrepreneurs 1.2: Higher Professionals • 2: Lower Managerial & Professional • 3: Intermediate White Collar & Supervisory • 4: Small employers & Own-Account workers • 5: Lower Supervisory, Non-Manual & Craft/Skilled • 6: Semi-Routine / Skilled, Low Paid & Public Service • 7: Routine / Unskilled manual, near minimum wage • 8: Never worked / Long term unemployed
AS Module 1: Unit FourPolitical Culture & Social Class 6 Institute of Practitioners in Advertising: Class A : Higher managerial, administrative & professional Class B : Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional Class C1: Supervisory or clerical & Junior managerial, administrative & professional Class C2: Skilled manual workers Class D : Semi-skilled / unskilled manual Class E : Unemployed, widows,state pensioners, part-time, minimum earners
AS Module 1 : Unit FiveNorth & South, Home & Abroad 1 Key Questions: • What are the regional variations in voting patterns? • What has been the effect of de-industrialisation on voting patterns? • How has the political role and influence of Trade Unions changed, in recent years? • What impact has membership of the EU had on voting patterns? • How does Britain’s wider role in the world impact on political issues and attitudes?
AS Module 1: Unit FiveNorth & South, Home & Abroad 2 • Reading Ch5-P3: Social impact of • Economic change • Reading Ch9-P1-3: North/South divide • Activity 5-5: De-industrialisation • Activity 5-6: Unions in the 1900’s • Reading Ch6-P12 & 3: E. Union Context • Reading Ch6-P4: Globalisation
AS Module 1: Unit SixAge, Gender, Religion, Ethnicity 1 Key Questions: • What social factors, other than class, might influence the behavior of voters? • How far do the voting habits of [any one of four] reflect those of the electorate generally? • What are the political and social factors influencing the voting habits of [any of the four]? • Explain why, in researching voting behavior, it is difficult to be sure which of the variables is determinative.
AS Module 1: Unit SixAge, Gender, Religion &Ethnicity 2 • Reading Ch5-P2: Gender • Activity 5-3: Women in the late 1900’s • Reading Ch5-P2-3: Ethnicity • Activity 5-4: Racism in Britain • Reading Ch9-P1-3: Age, Religion and • Ethnicity • Reading Page 205 Youth • Reference: Ch11-P1 & Ch11-P2-3/4/5: Black/Female Councillors/MPs