ABOVE GROUND STORAGE TANKS. CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING. WELCOME. INSTRUCTOR. Insert Instructor Name Here. OBJECTIVES. Define Above Ground Storage Tanks (ASTs) Discuss the Components of Above Ground Storage Tank Management Plans. Discuss Field-Erected Tanks.
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Insert Instructor Name Here
The goal of this course is to provide supervisors with the tools needed to manage above ground storage tanks from leaking. It recommends practical, actions that can be carried out by facility management, maintenance personnel and building occupants. The course will help you to integrate good AST management activities into your existing organization and identify which of your staff have the necessary skills to carry out those activities.
The course is not intended to provide information to install, repair, calibrate equipment or remove ASTs.
Nor is it intended to instruct how to write SPCC or FRP plans. These specialties required training beyond the intended scope of this course. Where this expertise is needed, outside assistance should be solicited.
In regulating ASTs, fire departments often use the Uniform Fire Code, Section 79 and the National Fire and Protection Association (NFPA) Sections 30 and 30A.
AST owners should find out the specific regulating guidance for their state.FIRE DEPARTMENTS
Above ground storage tanks are 110 gallons or greater.
Regulated tanks are tanks that contain petroleum or hazardous substances. (Not water tanks etc.)
During this course, above ground storage tanks will refer to regulated above ground storage tanks.WHAT IS AN ABOVE GROUND STORAGE TANK?
Spill and Overfill Control
Associated Electrical Equipment
Release Detection and Monitoring
Fire Control/Emergency Equipment
Inspections/AssessmentsCOMPONENTS OF AN ABOVE GROUND STORAGE TANK MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The material of tank and piping construction shall be compatible with the material to be stored. If an internal protective coating or lining is to be employed, it shall also be compatible with the material to be stored.
Each tank shall be labeled, built, installed, and used within the scope of a nationally recognized standard.MATERIALS
All tanks and piping subject to corrosion shall be properly protected to ensure leaks do not occur.
This includes tanks and piping placed upon the ground, a pad, or any steel, masonry, or concrete foundation or pipe/tank stand, as this is the location at which accelerated corrosion is most likely to occur.CORROSION PROTECTION
If corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coating or lining shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank and piping.
External Corrosion Protection
All tanks and piping subject to corrosion shall be, at a minimum, coated/painted to prevent corrosion
For bunkered (half-buried) tanks, or tanks and piping in contact with the ground, cathodic protection is required in addition to coating/paintingCORROSION PROTECTION
Suction pumps shall be located as close as possible to the operating equipment, since all piping downstream of the pump is considered pressure pumping.
Means shall be provided to prevent the release of liquid by siphon flow.PUMPS
Tank filling shall not begin until the operator has determined tank ullage (available capacity) based on direct liquid level measurement converted to gallons (or some equivalent method). Tank ullage and the amount transferred to the tank shall be entered into the tank records.
The transfer operator shall be physically present to monitor the entire transfer process.SPILL AND OVERFILL CONTROL
Fixed or movable equipment is required that will contain the release of product when
i. the transfer hose is detached from the fill pipe
ii. the tank is overfilled
If not equipped with a hand operated nozzle, a check valve and shut off valve must be equipped.
Tanks 660 gallons or greater & placed in service after 1994:
Equipment is required that will automatically shut off flow into the tank when the tank is no more than 95%
Equipment is required that will trigger an audible alarm when the tank is no more than 90% full.SPILL AND OVERFILL CONTROL
Should be in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, or another accepted standard; OR
Shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connections, whichever is larger, but in no case less than 1.25 inches.VENTING
For liquids having a flash point below 73°F and a boiling point below 100°F, a venting device that is normally closed except when venting to pressure or vacuum shall be installed.
All vents shall have a spark arrestor cap.
All vents shall be located "in the clear" at least 12 feet above the ground.VENTING
Properly located valves, pipes, or blowout plugs
Weak roof-to-shell seam
Emergency relief venting capacity shall be in accordance with your state's storage tank regulations.EMERGENCY RELIEF VENTING
The foundations shall be designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank, and to minimize corrosion to any part of the tank resting on the foundation.TANK LOCATION
Hot surfaces, radiant heat
Cutting and welding
Frictional heat or sparks
Static electricity, electrical sparks
Stray currentsTANK LOCATION
Buildings and their occupants (minimum distances required)
Other tanks (minimum distances required)
Adjoining property (minimum distances required)
Waterways, streams, and ditches
Tanks shall be anchored, as necessary for stability.TANK LOCATION
1. Required for all ASTs larger than 110 gallons
2. All secondary containment areas or systems shall be maintained free of accumulations of water, leaves, weeds, flammable materials, tanks or drums, or anything else that may interfere with the containment purpose or visual detection of leaks or spills.SECONDARY CONTAINMENT
Impervious to the tank contents for at least 72 hours.
Compatible with the tank contents
Resistant to normal environmental conditions.
Of sufficient strength and durability to resist tearing, cracking, collapsing, etc. for the tank’s lifetime.
Can contain 110% of the volume of the tank.
Of sufficient size to contain all critical piping, fittings, and valves.SECONDARY CONTAINMENT
Steel catchment basins or spill skids
Masonry or concrete berms
Earthen berms, only when used in conjunction with an appropriate liner or coating
‘Visqueen' or other non-reinforced plastic sheeting with a thickness of 40 mils (0.75mm) or less is NOT appropriate
Secondary containment tanks (i.e. double-walled tanks or concrete encased tanks). These tanks (including associated piping and pumps) are exempt from containing 110% and containing piping and equipment.SECONDARY CONTAINMENT
All electrical equipment and wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70 (National Electrical Code).
An Emergency Power Off (EPO) switch, or other suitable disconnect switch, shall be located near the electrical equipment, and this switch shall be labeled.
All maintenance of the electrical equipment shall be conducted in accordance with the Lockout/Tagout Program.
Provisions shall be made for the control of static electricity at installations where flammable or combustible liquids are transferred or dispensed.ASSOCIATED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
a. ASTs that are not in contact with the ground or any electrolyte shall be visually inspected at least once per month;
b. For ASTs or their supporting structure in contact with the soil or an electrolyte, a biennial (every two years) leakage test and internal or external visual inspection of the bottom of the tank shall be completed in addition to the monthly inspection noted in (a) above.RELEASE DETECTION AND MONITORING
a. at least one portable standard NREL dry chemical fire extinguisher (minimum 4A60B:C rating) shall be within 25 feet of any tank containing a flammable or combustible liquid
a. at least one portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 4A60B:C rating shall be within 25 feet of any tank containing a flammable or combustible liquid
b. emergency information (location of nearest telephone, dialing instructions, who to contact, equipment owner/area landlord etc.) shall be placed between 10 and 50 feet from the tankFIRE CONTROL/EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
1. Own or operate a non-transportation related fixed facility that could be reasonably be expected to discharge oil into or upon navigable waters of the United States and
2. The facility has an above ground storage capability of
More than 660 gallons in a single container, or
A total above ground oil storage capacity of 1,320 gallons, or
A total underground buried storage capacity of more than 42,000 gallons.SPILL PREVENTION CONTROL AND COUNTERMEASURES
Be kept onsite.
Be certified by a Registered Professional Engineer (PE)
Have full management approval.
Conform with all SPCC requirements in 40 CFR Part 112
Discuss the facility’s spill history.
Discuss spill prediction – (i.e. the direction of flow)
Be reviewed every three years by management.
Be amended when you change the facility and re-certified by a PE.SPILL PREVENTION CONTROL AND COUNTERMEASURES
This plan, to the maximum extent possible, is for responding to a "worst case discharge" of oil and to the substantial threat of such a discharge to the surrounding environment.
Oil is defined as an oil of any kind or in any form, including, but not limited to, petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil.FACILITY RESPONSE PLANS
A facility with a maximum oil storage capacity greater than or equal to 42,000 gallons and operations include over-water transfers of oil to or from vessels.
A facility with a maximum oil storage capacity greater than or equal to one million gallons.
A facility without secondary containment for each above ground storage tank large enough to contain the capacity of the largest above ground storage tank within that storage area.FACILITY RESPONSE PLANS
A facility located at a distance such that a discharge from the facility would shut down a drinking water intake.
A facility that has experienced a reportable spill in the past five years that was greater than or equal to 10,000 gallons.
The U.S. EPA Regional Administrator has discretion to require an FRP from any facility.FACILITY RESPONSE PLANS
Emergency Response Action Plan
Emergency Response Information
Spill scenario discussion
Discharge detection systems information
Plan implementation information
Facility self-inspection checklists
Diagrams for the site plan and the drainage plan
Security systems descriptionELEMENTS OF A FACILITY RESPONSE PLAN
Each time there is a material change at an FRP facility, the facility must resubmit their plan for approval within 60 days.
Examples of material changes include:
- A significant change in facility capacity, configuration or type of oil handled;
- A change in the capacity or availability of response contractors; or
- A change in spill prevention equipment or response procedures that may affect the potential for a discharge.FACILITY RESPONSE PLANS
2. Access to tank interiors are subject to the facility’s Confined Space Entry Program
3. Safe Operating Procedures or other written operating procedures shall be developed for all permanent tank operations.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
5. All tanks, machinery, and piping shall be grounded.
6. Means shall be provided to protect tank systems from vandalism to the greatest extent practicable (i.e. all fill and withdrawal openings that can be opened without hand tools shall be locked).
7. Spill control equipment such as booms, pads, and absorbents shall be provided by the tank operator, located near the tank, and available at all times.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Date, time, location and type of an incident;
Name, quantity and source of material involved;
Cause of an incident and name of the party involved with the incident;
Measures taken to contain and cleanup the spill;
Quantity and disposition of material resulting from cleanup;
Measures taken to prevent recurrence.
Severity and geographic area affected;IF A SPILL OCCURS
Name(s) of the owner or operator of the facility;
Location of the facility;
Date and year of initial facility operation;
Maximum storage or handling capacity of the facility and normal daily throughput;
Description of the facility, including maps, flow diagrams and topographical maps;
The cause(s) of such spill(s), including a failure analysis of the system or subsystem in which the failure occurred;
Corrective actions and/or countermeasures taken,
A copy of the SPCC Plan and any other information pertinent to the Plan or the spill(s).SPILL INFORMATION TO REPORT TO EPA
An application shall be submitted to and approved by the regulatory agency prior to construction or operation of tanks over 110 gallons.
3. Existing Tanks
Modifications to tanks greater than 110 gallons which alter their type, location, capacity, or contents shall be registered with the regulatory agency.REPORTING
The following service types are designated for all AST's.
i. In Service—currently in use, all recordkeeping requirements apply
ii. Out-of-Service—less than 90 days, tank shall be empty, all recordkeeping requirements apply.
iii. Out-of-Service—more than 90 days but less than 12 months.
iv. Temporary Closure—less than 24 months, tank must be empty, additional requirements apply.
v. Permanent Closure—tank will no longer be used, tank must be empty.
a. A Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan (SPCC) shall be prepared and implemented when the total storage capacity of the site exceeds 1320 gallons, or when any single tank exceeds 660 gallons. This Program shall be written and implemented in accordance with 40 CFR 112.
b. Tank registration records issued by the regulatory agency shall be retained until tank closure.
c. A copy of all As-Built drawings and schematics for all tanks. These drawing should be retained for five years or the life of the tank, whichever is longer.RECORDKEEPING
4. Ullage Records
Records to document that tank ullage (available capacity) was properly checked prior to filling tanks shall be maintained. These records shall be completed and maintained by the owning organization responsible for the tank, and retained for a minimum of six months.RECORDKEEPING
1. product transfer operations
2. emergency response procedures
3. release detection equipment
4. safety mechanisms
5. fire control equipment
6. normal and emergency operating procedures
7. inspection proceduresTRAINING
Corrrosion Protection controls present and in good operating condition (e.g. paint, cathodic protection).
Tank, piping, pumps, and valves inspected for signs of corrosion, damage, and failure (e.g. leaks). Inspect fill area, dispensing area, and under tank.
Spill and Overfill Protection controls present and in good operating condition (e.g. reservoirs, catchment basins for use during tank filling).RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
5. Normal vent present and in good operating condition.
6. Vapor Recovery equipment present and in good operating condition.
7. Secondary Containment system present and in good operating condition.RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
9. Electrical equipment and static controls present and in good operating condition
10. Has interstitial monitor been tested within the last month?RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
12. Fire Control and Emergency equipment present and in good operating condition (e.g. fire extinguisher, phone, fire alarm, spill control equipment).
13. Tank Operation and Security: have all appropriate tank valves and equipment been properly configured, secured, and/or locked.RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
“I would ask all of us to remember that protecting our environment is about protecting where we live and how we live. Let us join together to protect our health, our economy, and our communities -- so all of us and our children and our grandchildren can enjoy a healthy and a prosperous life.”
Carol Browner Former EPA Administrator