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Subatomic Particles

Subatomic Particles

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Subatomic Particles

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  1. Subatomic Particles

  2. Matter • All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms

  3. Atoms • An atom is made up of smaller, subatomic particles: • Protons (+) • Neutrons (0) • Electrons (-)

  4. Protons • An atom is identified by the number of protons in the nucleus • Positively charged • All the protons in an element are identical

  5. Neutrons • Located in the nucleus • Do not have an electrical charge • All the neutrons in an element are identical • All elements have neutrons except H

  6. Neutrons • Neutrons are unable to bind with each other b/c of their lack of charge • Neutrons can bind with protons • Bound neutrons are very stable • Free neutrons are very unstable (last less than 15min)

  7. Neutrons • Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons • Neutrons have been key to nuclear power production & nuclear weapons • Fission - breaking large nuclei into small nuclei releasing a lot of energy

  8. Quarks • Elementary particle • Make up protons and neutrons • Combine to form composite particles called hadrons (protons & neutrons)

  9. Quarks • 6 flavors of quarks: • Up • Down • Strange • Charm • Top • Bottom

  10. Electrons • Are negatively charged particles • Located outside of the nucleus • All electrons of an atom are identical • The number & arrangement of the electrons determines an elements chemical properties

  11. Electrons • Travel in random paths in areas around the nucleus called clouds • An electrons energy level determines its average distance from the nucleus • The charge of an electron is equal in size but opposite in sign from a proton

  12. Electrons • Since unlike charges attract to each other, electrons and protons exert an attractive electrical force on each other which is what holds the electrons to the nucleus

  13. Leptons • Make up electrons

  14. Leptons • 3 flavors of Leptons • Electron nutrino (Ve) • Muonnutrino (Vµ) • Tau nutrino (VT)