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Unit Two – Honors World History. Byzantine, Mongol, Islam, African Societies. SSWH4 - The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE. .

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unit two honors world history

Unit Two – Honors World History

Byzantine, Mongol, Islam, African Societies

SSWH4 - The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE.
  • a. Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of the Empress Theodora, Justinian’s Code, and Justinian’s efforts to recapture the west.
  • b. Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires; include the impact Byzantium had on Moscow and the Russian Empire, the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of Constantinople as a center for law, religion, and the arts.
  • c. Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE.
  • d. Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China and the West, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo.
  • e. Explain the Ottoman Empire’s role in the decline of Byzantium and the capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
first ten
First Ten
  • Listen to MLK Jr. Speech – 50th Anniversary
  • Review Test Results
  • Where can I improve?
  • List two goals for Unit Two – List these in your “First Ten” area of your notebook.
  • Originally Christianity had one church. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian Church split in 1054 CE (Great Schism).
  • Gospel of Jesus and Bible
  • Baptism
  • Priests/
  • bishops
  • Seek converts
work session
Work Session
  • Time Period – 500 CE
  • Byzantine Empire – 527 CE – Justinian
  • 1240 CE Mongols Rise
  • 1453 CE – Constantinople falls to Ottomans
  • PPT Notes
  • Constantinople became the sole capital of the empire and remained so until the successful revival of the western empire in the 8th century by Charlemagne.
  • The city is named after the emperor Constantine
  • Constantine announced the end to all persecution of Christians
justinian 482 565 ce
Justinian 482-565 CE
  • 527 – Succeeded his uncle – New Emperors of Rome
  • ABSOLUTE Power – Ran a theocracy – leader of the church and state
  • “New Caesar”
  • Known for his law code
  • Constant struggle to gain control of the west and restore the former Roman Empire
justinian s code
Justinian’s Code
  • Greek Language – Distinctive Culture
  • Created a uniform law code from convoluted / contradictory laws of the Romans
    • The Code – 5,000 Roman Laws
    • The Digest: Opinions of legal thinkers about law
    • The Institutes: textbook to law students
    • The Novella – The New Laws passed after 534
  • Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights, and criminal justice
  • Lasted 900 years!
new religion
New Religion
  • Religion as well as law served imperial centralization. In 380, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered “demented and insane.”

Book I, Of Persons

  • VIII. Slaves
  • 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master.

Book II, Of Things

  • I. Division of Things
  • 1. By the law of nature these things are common to mankind: the air, running water, the
  • sea, and consequently the shores of the sea. No one, therefore, is forbidden to approach the seashore, provided that he respects habitats, monuments, and buildings which are not, like the sea, subject only to the law of nations. …
  • 5. The public use of the seashore is part of the law of nations, as is that of the sea itself; and, therefore, any person is at liberty to place on it a cottage, to which he may retreat, or to dry his nets there, and haul them from the sea; for the shores may be said to be the property of no man. …
  • 28. If the wheat of Titius is mixed with yours, when this takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs to you in common because … each grain, which before was the property of one or other of you, has by your mutual consent been made your common property; but, if the intermixture were accidental, or made by Titius without your consent, the mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in common… If either of you keep the whole quantity of mixed wheat, the other has a real actio [claim or suit] for the amount of wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to each.  
empress theodora 500 548 ce
Empress Theodora 500-548 CE
  • Wife of Justinian
  • Very powerful
  • Dealt with foreign problems/disputes/treaties
  • Assisted with the legislative process
  • Supported the construction of churches
  • After her death Justinian passed no more laws
  • Capital City
  • Rebuilt city with walled fortifications
  • Church Construction
    • Hagia Sophia
      • Holy Wisdom
  • Preservation of Greco-Roman History
  • Ottoman Turks sack the city in 1453
"Not since the world was made was there . . . so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that two-thirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world."
  • --Robert of Clari, a French crusader who witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204, describing Constantinople.
the great schism 1054
The Great Schism: 1054
  • 1054: The pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other in a dispute over religious doctrine
last ten
Last Ten
  • Rome:
    • Three Reasons the Roman Empire fell:
    • First Christian Emperor in Constantinople:
    • In 476 CE:
    • Western Europe will see 500 years of dark ages
    • Eastern Europe is now the _________________ Empire
  • Byzantine:
    • Byzantine was different from the Roman Empire because they utilized a ____________ language and was a solid ___________ state.
    • ____________ was the significant leader of the Byzantine Empire
    • Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics:
day two
Day Two

Engineering an Empire & Great Schism

first ten1
First Ten
  • Rome:
    • Three Reasons the Roman Empire fell:
    • First Christian Emperor in Constantinople:
    • In 476 CE:
    • Western Europe will see 500 years of dark ages
    • Eastern Europe is now the _________________ Empire
  • Byzantine:
    • Byzantine was different from the Roman Empire because they utilized a ____________ language and was a solid ___________ state.
    • ____________ was the significant leader of the Byzantine Empire
    • Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics:
  • Originally Christianity had one church. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian Church split in 1054 CE (Great Schism).
  • Gospel of Jesus and Bible
  • Baptism
  • Priests/
  • bishops
  • Seek converts
work session1
Work Session
  • Engineering an Empire
  • Discussion
last ten1
Last Ten
day three
Day Three


first ten2
First Ten
  • Drop your card in the basket on the front chair (Index Card with organization on it you are interested in researching)
  • Based on the map below describe the territories the Mongols invaded. For example, if you had to tell a person where the Mongol Empire was WITHOUT the use of a map – visual, how would you describe it? Where did they NOT invade?
  • Fierce group of horsemen from Central Asia made their way into Russia around mid-1200’s
  • Genghis Khan was their leader: one of the most feared leaders of all time.
  • Known for their savage killing and burning  BRUTAL
  • Destroyed Kiev (1240) “no remaining eye to weep”
  • Ruled Southern Russia for 200 years
work session2
Work Session
  • Quiz
  • Crash Course – The Mongols
  • PPT Slides
  • Start video if time
mongol influences in the west
Mongol Influences in the West
  • Nomadic people from central Asia
    • great horseman
    • Lead by Genghis Khan- one of the most feared warriors of all time
    • He launched a campaign of terror across central Asia
  • The Mongols destroyed one city after another
  • By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control
genghis khan
Genghis Khan
  • Three things that made him such a great conqueror:
    • He was a brilliant organizer. He assembled his Mongol warriors into a mighty force, following the model of the Chinese military.
    • He was a gifted strategist. He used various tricks to confuse his enemy.
    • Used cruelty as a weapon. He believed in terrifying his enemies into surrender.
  • Genghis Khan dies in 1227 from illness. His successors continue to expand his empire
pax mongolica
  • From the mid 1200’s-1300’s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia.
  • This period is referred to as Mongol Peace
  • The Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to the other.
mongol influences in china
Mongol Influences In China
  • Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, unites China
  • But he is warned, “I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback”
  • The Mongol rulers had little in common with their Chinese subjects.
  • Because of their differences, the Mongols kept their separate identity. They lived apart from the Chinese and obeyed different laws.
  • They kept the Chinese out of high government offices
trade under mongol rule
Trade under Mongol Rule
  • Foreign trade increased under Kublai Khan
  • Trade between Europe and Asia had never been more active. Ideas and inventions traveled along with the trade goods. Many Chinese innovations, such as gunpowder, reached Europe during this period.
  • He also encouraged trade by inviting foreign merchants to visit China. – Marco Polo!
influences in russia
Influences in Russia
  • Looted and burned Kiev
  • Mongol rule cut off Russian contacts with Western Europe which were making advances in art and science
  • Tatars – Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th c.; left Russian church and aristocracy intact
  • While ferocious in war, the Mongols were quite tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their beliefs on those they conquered
moscow takes lead
Moscow Takes Lead
  • With their location near trading rivers, Moscow steadily increased their power
  • Head of Russian Orthodox church made Moscow capital, became political and spiritual center
ivan the great ivan iii
Ivan the Great ---- Ivan III
  • Recovered Russian territories that were lost to invaders
  • Russia becomes an empire under Ivan III
  • Tried to limit the power ofboyars (landowning nobles)
  • Took on the title of Czar (Russian for Caesar)
  • Russia= “Third Rome”
last ten2
Last Ten
  • How did the Mongols influence Russia?
  • How were the Russian’s Influenced by the Byzantines?
  • What lead Moscow to grow as a city?
  • Who was the leader of the Mongols?
day four
Day Four


first ten3
First Ten
  • GET READY! Quiz #2 will be on Friday over the Mongols and the Byzantine Empire (also the Great Schism) – HINT – I WOULD STUDY!
  • Also, we are starting a project in class today and you will work on it tomorrow in class with the sub. It is due when you walk in the door on Friday and then we will quiz.
  • Get out handout from yesterday with video question – we are watching the video the first 45 minutes of class and then we will start the project.
work session3
Work Session
  • Barbarians: Mongols – History Channel with questions
  • Start Project
last ten3
Last Ten
  • Develop one quiz question about the Mongols and one quiz question about the Byzantine Empire or Great Schism and write it on your index card. It can be a short answer, fill in the blank, multiple choice, or true/false. You pick!
day five
Day Five

Finish Mongols – Start Islam

first ten4
First Ten
  • Turn in project to basket – be sure name is on it.
  • Study for Quiz – Taking it in 5!
work session4
Work Session
  • Quiz
  • Islam PPT
  • Discussion
  • Allah
  • Muhammad
  • Islam
  • Muslim
  • Hijrah
  • Ummah
  • Sunna
  • Shari’a
  • Islam is the RELIGION and Muslims are the PEOPLE
  • Only 1/5 of Muslims are Arabs
  • QURAN (or KORAN): Muslim holy book
  • Muslims are monotheistic and worship the same one God as Christians and Jews.
  • Allah, Yahweh, God
  • MOSQUE: a Islamic place of worship
  • 5 Pillars:



in mecca during the pilgrimage
In Mecca during the pilgrimage




mosque in medina saudi arabia
Mosque in Medina, Saudi Arabia



mohammed ali mosque cairo egypt
Mohammed Ali mosque, Cairo, Egypt



blue mosque sultan ahmet mosque istanbul turkey
Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Mosque), Istanbul Turkey



interior of the blue mosque
Interior of the Blue Mosque



dome of a mosque esfahan iran
Dome of a mosque, Esfahan, Iran



mosque in djenne mali west africa
Mosque in Djenne, Mali (West Africa)



north african mosque
North African mosque


tunis.htm 39

indonesian mosque
Indonesian mosque



mosque in tempe arizona
Mosque in Tempe, Arizona




  • Acknowledges Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Jesus, John the Baptist, and others as the “the good prophets of God”
  • A special place for Jesus and Mary
  • Accepts that Mary’s conception is from God’s soul.
  • Rejects the divinity of Jesus (no trinity).
  • When conquering territories People of the book did not have to covert and could hold high ranks in the world of Islam.
timeline of events
Timeline of Events
  • 571 Muhammad born in Mecca.
  • 610 First revelation in the Harraacave (27 Ramadan).
  • 613 Muhammad starts to preach; Arabs fear monotheism
  • 622 “Hijrah” or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).  MEDINA
629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully(NO REVENGE)
      • destroys idols in Ka’aba.
      • brings peace to war-torn Arabia
      • Ummah “Community”
  • 632 Muhammad dies in Medina. Unmarked grave (his will)
muhammad s successors spread islam
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam
  • What do we do next?
    • No named successor
  • Election: Abu Bakr
    • First Caliph “successor”
  • Three more: Umar, Uthman, and Ali
  • Things start to go wrong = jihad
  • Expansion occurs after Bakr is dead
  • By 750 (page 261) 6,000 miles
    • Muslim success: weak surroundings and persecuted victims, tax
  • Tolerance for people of the book
  • Sunni- Believed the community should select Muhammad's successor.
    • 90% of Muslims
  • Shi’a- Believed a family member, Ali, who was married to Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah should be the first caliph: spiritual head of Islam.
    • Today Shi’a is mainly in Iran (90%), Iraq (55%) and Lebanon (~40%)
    • Med. Sea
    • Indian Ocean
  • Land
    • Silk Roads
  • Arabic & Dinar
    • Sakk = check (banks)
  • Umayyads rule = Shi’a
  • Abbasids overthrew Umayyads – 750 -1258
    • Create new capital: Baghdad – trade routes
    • Organized bureaucracy
    • Could not control entire territory
  • “Independent Muslim states sprang up, and local leaders dominated many smaller regions.”
    • Fatimid (Shi’a, from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima)
  • Ibn Sina (980 AD)- Wrote medieval texts like- The Book of Healing & The Canon of Medicine- became standard medical texts for Europe.
  • Ibn Battuta (1304) – Traveler and scholar. Traveled a much larger area than Marco Polo.

Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting

  • List the 5 pillars
  • Who was the first Caliph?
  • Who was Ali?
  • Who were the Abbasids?
  • Why did Muslims split between Sunni and Shi’a?
  • What were the results of the Muslim Empire growing so large?

Abu Bakr

Son-in-law of Muhammad

overthrew Umayyads in 750-efficient


Loss of control

last ten4
Last Ten
  • HW Assignment – Trans-Saharan Trade Guided Reading with Questions – Classwork Grade