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  1. Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  5. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 890-891 The Human Body Protection, Support, and Locomotion The Digestive and Endocrine Systems The Nervous System Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Reproduction and Development Immunity from Disease

  8. Chapter Contents – page xiii Chapter 39Immunity from Disease 39.1:The Nature of Disease 39.1:Section Check 39.2:Defense Against Infectious Diseases 39.2:Section Check Chapter 39Summary Chapter 39Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 1022 What You’ll Learn You will describe how infections are transmitted and what causes the symptoms of diseases. You will explain the various types of innate and acquired immune responses. You will compare antibody and cellular immunity.

  10. 39.1 Section Objectives – page 1023 Section Objectives: • Outline the steps of Koch’s postulates. • Describe how pathogens are transmitted. • Explain what causes the symptoms of a disease.

  11. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 What is an infectious disease? Streptococcus • Disease-producing agents such as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, viruses, and other parasites are called pathogens. • The main sources of pathogens are soil, contaminated water, and infected animals, including other people.

  12. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 What is an infectious disease? • Not all microorganisms are pathogenic. In fact, the presence of some microorganisms in your body is beneficial. • These microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship with your body.

  13. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 What is an infectious disease? • If conditions change and the beneficial organisms are eliminated, pathogens can establish themselves and cause infection and disease. • If the beneficial organisms enter areas of the body where they are not normally found or if a person becomes weakened or injured, these formerly harmless organisms can become potential pathogens.

  14. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Human Infectious Disease Transmission Disease Cause Affected Organ System Droplet Smallpox Virus Skin Chicken pox Droplet Virus Skin Rabies Animal bite Virus Nervous system Poliomyelitis Virus Nervous system Virus Contaminated water Direct contact Colds Viruses Respiratory system Influenza Direct contact Viruses Respiratory system HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Exchange of body fluids Hepatitis B Virus Liver Exchange of body fluids Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Food poisoning Bacteria Digestive system Contaminated food/water Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Droplet Diptheria Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Bacteria Nervous system Droplet Spinal meningitis

  15. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Determining What Causes a Disease • Not all diseases are caused by pathogens. • Some disorders are inherited, such as hemophilia (hee muh FIH lee uh), which is caused by a recessive allele on the X chromosome, and sickle-cell anemia. • Others, such as osteoarthritis (ahs tee oh ar THRI tus), may be caused by wear and tear on the body as it ages.

  16. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Determining What Causes a Disease • Pathogens cause infectious diseases and some cancers. • In order to determine which pathogen causes a specific disease, scientists follow a standard set of procedures.

  17. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 First pathogen identified • The first proof that pathogens actually cause disease came from the work of Robert Koch (KAHK) in 1876. • Koch discovered a rod-shaped bacterium in the blood of cattle that had died of anthrax. Anthrax

  18. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 First pathogen identified • He cultured the bacteria on nutrients and then injected samples of the culture into healthy animals. • When these animals became sick and died, Koch isolated the bacteria in their blood and compared them with the bacteria he had originally isolated from anthrax victims. • He found that the two sets of blood cultures contained the same bacteria.

  19. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 A procedure to establish the cause of a disease • Koch established experimental steps for directly relating a specific pathogen to a specific disease. • The following steps, first published in 1884, are known today as Koch’s postulates.

  20. Infectious pathogen identified Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Step 2 Step 1 Pathogen grown in pure culture Step 4 Identical pathogen identified Step 3 Pathogen injected into healthy animal Healthy animal becomes sick

  21. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Exceptions to Koch’s postulates • Some organisms, such as the pathogenic bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted disease syphilis (SIH fuh lus), have never been grown on an artificial medium. • Viral pathogens also cannot be cultured this way because they multiply only within cells. • As a result, living tissue must be used as a culture medium for viruses.

  22. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 The Spread of Infectious Diseases • For a disease to continue and spread, there must be a continual source of the disease organisms. • This source can be either a living organism or an inanimate object on which the pathogen can survive.

  23. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Reservoirs of pathogens • The body can be a reservoir of disease-causing organisms. • People may transmit pathogens directly or indirectly to other people.

  24. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Reservoirs of pathogens • Sometimes, people can harbor pathogens without exhibiting any signs of the illness and unknowingly transmit the pathogens to others. • These people are called carriers and are a significant reservoir of infectious diseases.

  25. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Reservoirs of pathogens • Other people may unknowingly pass on a disease during its first stage, before they begin to experience symptoms. • This symptom-free period, while the pathogens are multiplying within the body, is called an incubation period.

  26. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Reservoirs of pathogens • Animals are other living reservoirs of microorganisms that cause disease in humans. • Some types of influenza, commonly known as the flu, rabies, and Lyme disease are transmitted to humans from animals.

  27. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Reservoirs of pathogens • The major nonliving reservoirs of infectious diseases are soil and water. • Soil harbors pathogens such as fungi and bacterium that causes botulism, a type of food poisoning.

  28. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Reservoirs of pathogens • Water contaminated by feces of humans and other animals is a reservoir for several pathogens, especially those responsible for intestinal diseases.

  29. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Transmission of disease • Pathogens can be transmitted to a host from reservoirs in four main ways: by direct contact, by an object, through the air, or by an intermediate organism called a vector. • The common cold, influenza, and STDs are spread by direct contact.

  30. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Transmission of disease • Bacteria and other microorganisms can be present on nonliving objects such as money, toys, or towels. • Transmission occurs when people unknowingly handle contaminated objects.

  31. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Transmission of disease • Airborne transmission of a disease can occur when a person coughs or sneezes, spreading pathogens contained in droplets of mucus into the air.

  32. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Transmission of disease • Diseases transmitted by vectors are most commonly spread by insects and arthropods. • Diseases such as malaria and the West Nile virus are transmitted by mosquitoes.

  33. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Transmission of disease • Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are diseases that are transmitted by ticks.

  34. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Transmission of disease • Flies also are significant vectors of disease. • They transmit pathogens when they land on infected materials, such as animal wastes, and then land on fresh food that is eaten by humans.

  35. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 What causes the symptoms of a disease? • When a pathogen invades your body, it encounters your immune system. • If the pathogen overcomes the defenses of your immune system, it can metabolize and multiply, causing damage to the tissues it has invaded, and even killing host cells.

  36. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria • Most of the damage done to host cells by bacteria is inflicted by toxins. • Toxins are poisonous substances that are sometimes produced by microorganisms.

  37. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria • These poisons are transported by the blood and can inhibit protein synthesis in the host cell, destroy blood cells and blood vessels, produce fever, or cause spasms by disrupting the nervous system.

  38. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria • The toxin produced by tetanus bacteria affects nerve cells and produces uncontrollable muscle contractions. • Tetanus bacteria are normally present in soil.

  39. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Damage to the host by viruses and bacteria • If dirt transfers the bacteria into a deep wound on the body, the bacteria begin to produce the toxin in the wounded area. • A small amount of this toxin, about the same amount as the ink used to make a period could kill 30 people.

  40. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Patterns of Diseases • Identifying a pathogen, its method of transmission, and the geographic distribution of the disease it causes are major concerns of government health departments.

  41. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Patterns of Diseases • Some diseases, such as typhoid fever, occur only occasionally in the United States. • On the other hand, many diseases are constantly present in the population. • Such a disease is called an endemic disease. • The common cold is an endemic disease.

  42. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Patterns of Diseases

  43. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Treating Diseases • An antibiotic is a substance produced by a microorganism that, in small amounts, will kill or inhibit the growth and reproduction of other microorganisms, especially bacteria. • Although antibiotics can be used to cure some bacterial infections, antibiotics do not have an affect on viruses.

  44. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Treating Diseases • With the continued use of antibiotics, bacteria can become resistant to the drugs. • That means the drugs become ineffective. • Penicillin, an antibiotic produced by a fungus, was used for the first time in the 1940s and is still one of the most effective antibiotics known.

  45. Section 39.1 Summary – pages 1023-1030 Treating Diseases • The use of antibiotics is only one way to fight infections. • Your body also has its own built-in defense system—the immune system—that works to keep you healthy.

  46. Section 1 Check Question 1 A disease producing agent is called a _______. (TX Obj 3; 4C, 4D) A. vector B. bacteria C. pathogen D. antigen The answer is C, pathogen.

  47. Section 1 Check Human Infectious Disease Question 2 Transmission Disease Cause Affected Organ System Droplet Smallpox Virus Skin TX Obj 3; 4C Chicken pox Droplet Virus Skin Rabies Animal bite Virus Nervous system Poliomyelitis Nervous system Virus Contaminated water Direct contact Colds Viruses Respiratory system Influenza Direct contact Viruses Respiratory system HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Exchange of body fluids Hepatitis B Virus Liver Exchange of body fluids Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Food poisoning Bacteria Digestive system Contaminated food/water Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Droplet Diptheria Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Bacteria Nervous system Droplet Spinal meningitis

  48. Section 1 Check Human Infectious Disease Transmission Disease Cause Affected Organ System Droplet Smallpox Virus Skin Chicken pox Droplet Virus Skin Rabies Animal bite Virus Nervous system Poliomyelitis Nervous system Virus Contaminated water Direct contact Colds Viruses Respiratory system Influenza Direct contact Viruses Respiratory system HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Exchange of body fluids Hepatitis B Virus Liver Exchange of body fluids Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Food poisoning Bacteria Digestive system Contaminated food/water Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Droplet Diptheria Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Bacteria Nervous system Droplet Spinal meningitis

  49. Section 1 Check Question 3 How do bacteria affect host cells? (TX Obj 3; 4D) Answer Most of the damage done to host cells is inflicted by toxins. Toxins are poisonous substances that are sometimes produced by microorganisms. Toxins can cause many problems including fever, spasms, or disrupting the nervous system.